Unit 1 key terms

Encoding
Changing information so that it can be stored.
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Storage
Holding information in the memory system.
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Retrieval
Recovering information from storage.
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Multi-Store
The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores.
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Sensory Store
Holds information received from the senses for a very short period of time. (less than one second).
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Short-Term Store
Holds approximately seven chunks of information for a limited amount of time. (less than one minute).
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Long-Term Store
Holds a vast amount of information for a very long period of time (Unlimited).
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Recency Effect
Information received later is recalled better than earlier information.
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Primacy Effect
The first information received is recalled better than subsequent information.
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Reconstructive Memory
Altering our recollection of things so that they make more sense to us.
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Structural Processing
Thinking about the physical appearance of words to be learnt.
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Phonetic Processing
Thinking about the sound of the words to be learnt.
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Semantic Processing
Thinking about the meaning of the words to be learnt.
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Levels Of Processing
The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learn it.
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Interference
Things that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information that we have learnt.
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Retroactive Interference
When information we have recently learnt hinders our ability to recall information we have learnt previously.
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Proactive Interference
When information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall new information.
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Context
The general setting or environment in which activities happen.
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Anterograde Amnesia
Being unable to learn new information after suffering brain damage.
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Hippocampus
A brain structure that is crucial for memory.
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Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events that happened before brain damage occurred.
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Reliability
In the context of eyewitness testimony, the extent to which it can be regarded as accurate.
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Leading questions
A question that hints that a particular type of answer is required.
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Cognitive Interview
A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event.
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Sterotype
An oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others, for example, secondary head teachers are strict, intimidating, scary and male.
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Communication
Passing information from one person to another.
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Verbal Communication
Conveying messages using words or vocal sounds.
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Paralinguistics
Vocal features that accompany speech.
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Tone Of Voice
The way words are spoken to convey emotion.
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Emphasis
Giving prominence to some words more than others.
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Intonation
Inflection in the voice when speaking.
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Non-Verbal Communication
Conveying messages that do not require the use of words or vocal sounds.
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Eye Contact
When two people in conversation are looking at each other's eyes at the same time.
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Pupil Dilation
When the pupils in the eyes expand to look large.
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Hemispheres Of The Brain
The human brain is divided into two halves, called the left and right hemispheres.
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Practical Implications
Suggestions about behaviour in the real world beyond the research study, based upon what psychologists have discovered.
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Body Language
A general term to describe aspects of non-verbal communication.
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Posture
The positioning of the body, often regarded as a non-verbal communication signal.
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Postural Echo
Mirroring another person's body position.
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Confederate
An actor or stooge who appears to be a genuine participant in the experiment but is actually working for the experimenter.
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Closed Posture
Positioning the arms so that they are folded across the body and/or crossing the legs.
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Open Posture
Positioning the arms so they are not folded across the body and not crossing the legs.
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Gesture
A form of non-verbal communication is which information is conveyed by either deliberate or unconscious movement of parts of the body.
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Touch
A form of non-verbal communication in which information is conveyed by physical contact between people.
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Personal Space
The distance we keep between ourselves and other people in our everyday lives.
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Sex Differences
Differences due to being either male or female; these could affect personal space between individuals.
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Individual Differences
Factors that make one person not the same as another person, such as personality or age.
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Cultural Norms
The range of behaviours that members of a particular social group or society can be expected to show.
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Status
A person's rank or position within society.
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Personality
The thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make an individual unique.
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Temperament
The genetic component of personality.
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Longitudinal Study
A study carried out to show how behaviour changes over time.
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Monozygotic Twins
Twins developed from one fertilised eggs (identical).
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Dizygotic Twins
Twins developed from two separately fertilized eggs (non-identical).
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Type Theory
Personality are thought to be inherited. They can be described using related traits.
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Extroversion
A personality type that describes people who look to the outside world for entertainment.
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Introversion
A personality type that describes people who are content with their own company.
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Neuroticism
A personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show a quick, intense reaction to fear.
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Personality Scales
Ways of measuring personality using yes/no questions.
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Psychoticism
A third dimension identified by Eysenck. People who score high on the dimension are hostile, aggressive, insensitive and cruel.
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Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)
A condition in which the individual does not use socially acceptable behaviour or consider the rights of others.
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DSM-IV TR
Lists different mental disorders and the criteria for diagnosing them.
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Amygdala
Part of the brain involved in emotion.
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Grey Matter (Cerebral Cortex)
The outer layer of the brain.
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Prefrontal Cortex
The very front of the brain. It is involved in social and moral behaviour and controls aggression.
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Socioeconomic Factors
Social and financial issues that can affect an individual.
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Longitudinal Study
A study carried out to show how behaviour changes over time.
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Sterotype
An oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others, for example, secondary head teachers are strict, intimidating, scary and male.
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Media
Means of communication- television, radio, the internet and newspapers are examples of media.
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Practical Implications
Suggestions about behaviour in the real world beyond the research study, based upon what psychologists have discovered.
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Role Model
Someone who a child looks up to and is likely to copy.
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Prejudice
A rigid set of attitudes or beliefs towards particular groups of people. These attitudes are usually negative, but not always.
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Discrimination ( With Reference To Prejudice)
The way an individual behaves towards another person or group as a result of their prejudiced view. This behaviour is usually negative, but could also be positive.
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Authoritarian personality
A personality type that is prone to being prejudiced.
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F-Scale
The questionnaire used by Adorno to measure personality characteristics.
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Robbers Cave
The name given to Sherif's experiment on prejudice .
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In-Group
A group of people you believe you have something in common with, for example, your psychology group.
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Out-Group
A group of people whom you believe you have nothing in common with.
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Jigsaw Method
The name given to the technique used by Aronson to reduce prejudice within a group of mixed-race students.
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Expert Groups
Another name for the jigsaw method. It is called expert groups because each member of the group becomes an expert on a particular topic and they then pass this knowledge on to the rest of their groups.
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Contact
Seeing, speaking or writing to someone.
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Empathy
Being able to put yourself in someone else's position psychologically and understand how that person is feeling.
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Hypothesis
A testable statement about the relationship between two variables. In an experiment these variables are called the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV).
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Variable
A factor or thing that can change- it varies.
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Independent Variable (IV)
The variable that the researcher alters or manipulates to look for an effect on another variable. This variable produces the two conditions of the study.
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Dependent Variable (DV)
The variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has affected it.
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Experiment
The method of the research in which all variables other than the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV) are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify a cause and effect relationship between the IV and DV.
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Condition
An experiment is usually organised so there are two trials, after which the performances of the participants are compared. These are the conditions of the experiment.
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Participant
A person who is selected to take part in a study.
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Order Effect
This occurs when a participant's performance in the second condition of an experiment is affected because they have already done the first condition. They may do better because of practice or worse because of tiredness.
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Participant Variables
The differences between the people who take part in the study. These may affect the results of an experiment that uses an independent groups design.
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Standardised Procedures
A set order of carrying out a study that is applied to all participants when necessary.
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Random Allocation
A procedure for putting participants into conditions by chance.
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Counterbalancing
A procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiment.
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Extraneous Variable (EV)
A variable that is not the IV but might affect the DV if it is not controlled.
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Control
Making sure procedures are the same when necessary. Not controlling procedures leads to the possibility of extraneous variables occurring and confounding the results.
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Instructions
The written or verbal information given to participants during the experiment.
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Randomisation
Using chance to produce an order for a procedure.
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Ecological Validity
The results of the investigation can be said to apply to real-life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world.
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Objectivity
Not affected by personal biases.
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Participants
A person who is selected to take part in a study.
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Sample
The small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied.
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Target Population
The large group of people the researcher wishes to study.
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Representative
The sample of participants is made up of people who have the same characteristics and abilities as the target population.
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Generalised
The results from the sample can be said to apply to the target population.
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Random Sample
Every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
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Opportunity Sample
People who are members of the target population and are available and willing to take part.
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Systematic Sample
Every 'nth' member of the target population is selected for the sample.
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Stratified Sample
To obtain this type of sample, the different subgroups in the target population are identified; then people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to their numbers in the target population.
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Raw Data
The scores collected in a study that have not been analysed or summarised.
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Mean
A statistic calculated by adding all the scores in a set of values and dividing the total by the number of values in the set.
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Mode
The most frequently occurring value in a set of values.
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Median
The middle value in a set of values when the values have been arranged in ascending order.
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Range
The difference between the lowest and highest value in a set of values.
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Anomalous Result
An extremely high or low result that does not match the other results in a set of scores.
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Percentage
a proportion expressed as a fraction of 100.
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Ethical Issues
Points of concern about what is morally right.
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British Psychological Society (BPS) Guidelines
The ethical guidelines produced by the British Psychological Society in its Code Of Ethics And Conduct (2006) that govern the work of all practising and research psychologists and also of psychology students in the UK.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Holding information in the memory system.

Back

Storage

Card 3

Front

Recovering information from storage.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Holds information received from the senses for a very short period of time. (less than one second).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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