Unit 1 Health and social care (Human lifespan development)

What are primary sexual characteristics?
Processes that are related to the sex organs that are present at birth.
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What are secondary sexual characteristics?
Physical changes during puberty.
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Give an example of a secondary sexual characteristic.
Growth of armpit and pubic hair/ Growth spurt/ Breasts enlarge/ Hips widen/ Growth of facial hair/ Larynx grows causing the voice to deepen.
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What are gross motor skills?
Larger movements with arms, legs, hands and feet or the entire body.
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What are fine motor skills?
Smaller movements with small muscles such as the fingers and hands
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What is maturation?
When an individual reaches physical maturity.
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What are the symptoms of menopause?
Hot flushes/ Night sweats/ Mood swings/ Vaginal dryness/ Reduced sex drive.
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What are some signs of ageing?
Greying hair/ Loss of muscle tone and strength/ Increase or decrease in weight/ Menstruation ending/ Loss of height.
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What are Piaget's stages of development?
1. Sensorimotor(0-2 years) 2.Pre-operational(2-7 years) 3.Concrete operational(7-11 years) 4.Formal operational(11-18 years)
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What is a criticism of Piaget's stages of development?
Some people believed he underestimaed children and their development and that if they had support they can move to the next stage of development much quicker.
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What is conservation?
The understanding tht things stay the same. For example the water test where the container changes shape but the amount of water does not.
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What is egocentrism?
Seeing things from only your own point of view.
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What experiment did Piaget do to show that until children are 7 they are egocentric?
The Swiss mountain test.
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How did Noam Chomsky believe humans acquired language?
He suggested humans have a LAD (Language Acquisition Device) that allows us to acquire language and that we all follow the same pattern of language.
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What are criticisms of Chomsky's theory?
Lack of scientific evidence/ Emphasis on grammar rather than meanings/ Does not take into account support system needed
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What does Bowlby's theory of attachments suggest?
Infants are biologically pre-programmed to form attachments.
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What are Ainsworth's 3 main types of attachment?
1.Secure 2. Insecure/avoidant 3. insecure/resistant
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What may disrupted attachment cause?
Difficulty forming relationships/ Anxiety/ Learning disorders/ Depression
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What is self-image?
The mental picture people have of themselves.
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What is self-esteem?
How people value themselves and the knowledge they have.
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What are the stages of play in infancy and early childhood?
1. Solo play(0-2 years) -Play alone. 2. Parallel play(2-3 years) - Play next to each other but still involved in own play. 3. Co-operative play(3 years+) - Play together, share and talk.
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What are the 4 principles of Bandura's social learning theory?
1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation
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Nature vs Nurture: What is nature?
Influence of innate features of development (genetics)
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Nature vs Nurture: What is nurture?
Influence of environment and nurturing.
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What is genetic predisposition?
An individuals likelihood of getting a certain disease based on genetics.
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What does the Stress-diathesis model show?
How both nature and nurture both have a role in development of psychological disorders. Stress=Nurture. Diathesis=Nature.
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What conditions are caused by abnormalities in chromosomes?
Down's syndrome/ Klinefelter syndrome/ Colour blindness.
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What are some symptoms of foetal alcohol syndrome?
Small head circumference/ Abnormal growth/ Neurological problems/ Facial abnormalities/ Developmental delays.
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What factors can affect an unborn child?
Poor diet/ Drugs/ Alcohol/ Smoking.
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What conditions can be caused by pollutants?
Respiratory disorders(bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, lung cancer) Cardiovascular problems( heart attack, artery blockage) and Allergies ( wheezing,rashes,anaphylatic shock)
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What are possible effects of poor housing conditions?
1. Overcrowding can lead to Anxiety&Depression. 2. Poor ventilation, damp&mould can lead to respiratory disorders. 3. Poor sanitation increases the risk of infection. 4. Bad heating can lead to hypothermia.
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What are some characteristics of a dysfunctional family?
Family members not carrying out their responsibilities, family members are negative towards each other, sibling rivalry, abuse, needs not being met.
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What could a reason be for a dysfunctional family?
Parents having a bad upbringing, mental illnesses, alcohol abuse, drug abuse.
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What are some possible effects of parental separation?
Stress, Isolation, Increased likelihood of alcohol or drug problems, Guilt, Psychological problems.
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What types of bullying are there?
Verbal, Emotional, Physical and Cyber bullying.
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What can culture, community and beliefs influence?
Dress, Diet, Personal values, Lifestyle, Relationships
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What is income and expenditure?
A person's level of income and personal wealth.
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Give example of predictable life events.
Starting school/ Starting a job/ Leaving home/ Marriage/ Retirement/ Parenthood.
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Give examples of unpredictable life events.
Accidents/ Serious illness/ Divorce/ Redundancy
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What was the result of the Holmes-Rahe study?
That there is a correlation between the number of units(on the adjustment rating scale) and their illnesses.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are secondary sexual characteristics?


Physical changes during puberty.

Card 3


Give an example of a secondary sexual characteristic.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are gross motor skills?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are fine motor skills?


Preview of the front of card 5
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