Unit 1 Government & Politics AS elections and voting

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What is an election?
An election is a competitive process in which a designated group of people, known as the electorate, select individuals who will fill particular posts
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What is the delegate model of representation?
A delegate must act on behalf of those who chose them on the basis of the instructions they have been given
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What is the trustee model of representation?
MPs are responsible for representing the interests of their constituents in parliament, but once elected, they are free to decide how to vote based on their own judgement on the merits of an issue
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What is representation?
The process by which an individual or individuals act on behalf of a larger group
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What is a representative?
An individual who acts on behalf of a larger group, but is free to exercise their own judgement; exhibits a likeness or being typical
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What is a delegate?
An individual authorised to act on behalf of others but who is bound by clear instructions
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What is a manifesto?
A document in which a political party sets out its policy programme at an election
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What is a trustee?
An individual who has formal responsibility for the interests of another
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What is turnout?
The proportion of the electorate that votes in an election
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What is legitimacy?
Rightfulness. A political system is legitimate when it is based on the consent of the people - winning an election gives a government legitimacy
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What is a mandate?
An authoritative instruction or command, the doctrine of which gives the winning party the authority to go ahead with the programme it presented to the electorate
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What is a constituency?
A geographical territory for which representatives are chosen in an election
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What is the majoritarian electoral system?
An electoral system in which the winning candidate must achieve an absolute majority of votes cast in a single member constituency
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What is the mixed electoral system?
An electoral system where a proportion of representatives are elected under a majoritarian/plurality system in single member constituencies, and the others are elected as additional members using a proportional system in multi member constituencies
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What is the proportional representation electoral system?
An electoral system using multi member constituencies in which an electoral formula is used to match the percentage of seats won by each party to the percentage of votes they won
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What is the simple plurality electoral system?
An electoral system in which the candidate with the most votes in a single member constituency wins
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What is adversarial politics?
The government faces an opposition that offers a set of policies and which is outwardly hostile towards it even when in broad agreement with it
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What is a safe seat?
A constituency that normally elects an MP from the same political party at every election
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What is tactical voting?
Voting for the candidate most likely to defeat the voters least favoured candidate
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What is a wasted vote?
A vote for a loosing candidate in a single member constituency, or a vote for a winning candidate that was surplus to the plurality required for victory
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What is a coalition government?
A government made up of more than one political party
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What is a minority government?
A government formed by a political party that does not have an overall majority in the legislature
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What is split ticket voting?
The practice of voting for candidates from different parties in an election where an elector is permitted to cast more than one vote
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What are sociological approaches to voting behaviour?
Focus on the social characteristics of voters, particularly social class, and their party loyalties
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What are rational choice approaches to voting behaviour?
Focus on decisions made by individual voters on political issues, the economy, party leaders and governing competence
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Card 2

Front

What is the delegate model of representation?

Back

A delegate must act on behalf of those who chose them on the basis of the instructions they have been given

Card 3

Front

What is the trustee model of representation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is representation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a representative?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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