Unit 1 Geography Information

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Describe the structure of the Earth and the different crusts.
The Earth has a crust including the lithosphere (crust and upper mantle), mantle, outer core (liquid) and inner core (solid). There is the oceanic crust which is denser and heavier than continental.
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How do convection currents move plates?
Convecting currents are caused by heat moving from the core causing magma to rise then sink as it reaches the surface and becomes cooler. This makes plates move as the currents push and pull the plates.
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Name three types of plate boundary.
Constructive boundary pulls the plates apart and creates volcanoes. Destructive plates boundaries push together destroying land and causing earthquakes and volcanoes. Conservative boundaries slide past each other and result in earthquakes.
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What is the difference between climate and weather?
Climate is the average temperature/rainfall and weather is what you actually get - the day to day changes.
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Where are greenhouse gases in the UK coming from?
37% come from energy industries, 21% from roads, 8.5% from other, residential 15.6% and 17.7% from other industries.
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Name the different types of biomes.
Desert, Savanna, Arctic, Tundra, Tropical rainforests.
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How are tropical rainforests underthreat?
Deforestation-commercial logging destroyes forests, increase flooding, soil erosion and landslides (Amazon and Indonesia). Conversion to farmland-commercial agriculture (Oil Palm in Madagascar). Over farming/fishing (Gorillas in Uganda).
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Previous question continued...
Mining and energy destroyes hillsides causing pollution and dams flood areas (dams in Malaysia). Pollution in water from sewage, fertilisers, industry destroy ecosystems (Nigeria). Recreation and tourism destroys habitats and ecosystems (Malaysia).
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Responses to threats to the rainforest.
Sustainable forestry-only cut down mature trees near main roads. Productive zone-sustainable forestry, timber, palm oil (making money). Buffer zones are protected areas. Care zones including reserves/conservation areas, protected ecosystems+research.
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What type of system is the water cycles and what does it include?
It is a closed system as water does not leave. It has transfers where water moves from one place to another and stores where water is stored.
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Name some processes in the water cycle.
Precipitation is rain, surface run off is water flowing across the surface of the land. Interception when trees or objects get in the way. Infiltration when water soaks into soil. Evaporation, transpiration, condensation.
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Previous question continued...
Throughflow- water travels through soil to a river. Percolation is the downward movement of water from soil into rock. Water table- saturated ground in the soil. Groundwater flow- movement water through the rocks.
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What is economic and physical water scarcity?
Economic means people cannot afford clean water. Physical is where there is not clean water to access.
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What affects water quality/availability
Urbanisation and population growth (more people, more demand, more sewage). Agriculture (eutrophication, crops, animals).
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Explain the process of desertification.
Population grows so more demand for resources, fuel, housing and food. Trees are cut down and there is overgrazing. Soil becomes bare and is eroded by water and wind. So land is infertile and plants cannot grow so land turns to desert.
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Why is there a need to manage water resources and what threatens it?
There is a lot of pressure on water resources (drinking, sanitation, transportation, industry, lesuire, tourism. Threatened by excrement, chemicals, plastic bags, over extraction (abstraction) and diversion of flows to reservoirs.
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Describe how the coast can be eroded?
Attrition where rocks crash with other rocks and are broken up. Corrasion/abrasion is rock on cliff which erodes the cliff. Corrosion is rusting and disolving, where chemical dissolve the cliff.
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What is hydraulic action?
Hydraulic action is where water traps air into cracks in the rock. The air is compressed by waves creating larger cracks which expand and can lead to mass movement. Waves can be generated by wind or tectonic (tsunami).
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What is slumping?
The permeable rock in the cliff becomes saturated with water. It cannot move into the impermeable layer so the cliff slumps due to mass movement because of gravity.
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What affects wave energy?
The higher the wave hits the coastline the more erosion. Wind speed increases speed of waves (more erosion). Wind duration, longer time the wave is blown for the more erosion. Fetch, as distance increases wave power increases.
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Describe the properties of a constructive wave.
Long fetch, small waves, flat with long wave length. Wave spills over, swash is stronger than backswash and sand and shingle are moved up the beach. This creates berms and flat topped ridges. Depositional.
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Desribe the properties of a destructive wave.
Fetch is shorter, large wave with steep short wavelength, steep waves which have a powerful backwash to pull sediment down the beach. Causes longshore drist and erodes the beach.
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Explain longshore drift and how it moves sediment.
Waves approach coast in direction of prevailing wind. Carry sediment up the beach by swash then drag it back down using backswash at a right angle. The transports sediment.
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What are the four other transportation processes?
Traction: rolling large material along sea floor by waves. Saltation: bouncing of lighter material along sea floor. Suspension: small particles carried by water. Solution: material dissolved and carried by water.
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How is a spit formed and how does it lead onto a tombolo?
Prevailing wind causes longshore drift which carries on depositing sediment in the sea. Builds up and creates a strip from the mainland and a salt marsh behind the spit. Tombolos form when the speat joins a mainland (Chesil Beach).
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How are headlands and bays formed (erosional landforms)?
Formed on discordant coastline (Swanage Bay) due to softer rock being eroded faster than the harder rock. Beaches form in the bays creating strips of land further out than the rest.
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How do wave cut platforms make the cliff fall under mass movement?
Cliffs are formed when a destructive wave attacks the bottom of the rock, eroding it. Faults and joints break free and a wave cut platform is cut notch is formed. The the rocks fall away a wave cut platform is then created. The cliff then falls.
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How is a cave, then stack, then stump formed?
Waves weaken rock eroding it until it forms a cliff, this then results in an arch. The arch is attacked by coastal erosion and sub-aerial processes so the arch top falls=stack. Stack falls when pressure too much leaving a stump.
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Name six types of hard engineering and give a definition.
Hard engineering uses large, expensive structures. Includes, sea wall, revetments, gabions, rock armour, groynes, off-shore structures.
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Explain the advantages and disadvantages to these. Continues onto next que cards.
Seas walls reflect waves, last for a long time and are reasuring. But can allow for the beach infront to erode, cost £2000 per metre, ugly, make access to beach difficult. Groynes prevent LSD so extend the beach, dissipates wave energy reduce erosion
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However, they can increase erosion elsewhere and cost £2000 per metre. Gabions are wire cages filled with rocks, cheap £100 per metre, absorb wave energy but not very strong. Rock armour is easy to build, look natural and dissipate wave energy.
Cost £300 a metre but are more expensive if used out in the sea (off-shore breakwater). Revetments (sloping ramps) absorb wave energy but restrict access to the beach and can be destroyed. £1000 a metre. All can also be a safety hazard.
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What is soft engineering and name the types?
Uses nature and is cheaper. Planting vegetation (£20-50 per m2), beach nourishment (£500-1000 per m2) or offshore breakwaters like a mound of rocks (£2000 per m2).
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Soft engineering is more sustainable and can allow erosion. What are the names of these processes?
Hold the line: Use sea defences to stop erosion (expensive). Advance the line: use sea defences to move the coast further into the sea (v. expensive). Strategic realignment: let the coast erode and move people (financial compensation). Do nothing.
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Why is Australia so dry?
The Great Dividing Range Mountains cause moist air from the Pacific to be forced up the mountain, wind causes rainfall. Clouds then warm as they cross the other side creating a rain shadow as clouds cannot form as rainfall is low.
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Explain drought tolerance, drought avoidance and succulence (carries on to next que card).
Drought tolerance is shedding leaves to prvent water loss through transpiration, waxy leaves (Eucalyptus tree), few stomata to reduce water loss, deep roots to reach water underground.
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Drought avoidance is only living for one season, short life so plant seeds to lay dormant until rain allows to germinate. Some germinate in autumn after rain and flower in spring.
Succulence: plants have soft/fleshy leaves to store water. Shallow root system to absorb water after rainfall, waxy stems and leaves to reducse moisture loss through transpiration, slow down metabolism in drought. Camoflagued/spikes to protect.
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For a named town, explain how they have adapted to hot conditions? HINT: Mining
Coober Pedy is an opal mining town and have houses underground. Flat roofs for drying clothes and outdoor sleeping, also have solar panels for electricity and recycle water from the kitchen on the garden. Verandas to stop heat getting on walls.
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Name some of the food that aboriginals eat.
Wattle seeds, witchetty grubs, bush tomatoes, desert limes, kangaroo, fish etc
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What impact will climate change have in Australia?
It will cause famine and conflict leading to migration, desertification, reduction in vegetation so less grazing for animals, less reliable rainfall. Intense storms or flash slood to erode soil.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do convection currents move plates?

Back

Convecting currents are caused by heat moving from the core causing magma to rise then sink as it reaches the surface and becomes cooler. This makes plates move as the currents push and pull the plates.

Card 3

Front

Name three types of plate boundary.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the difference between climate and weather?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where are greenhouse gases in the UK coming from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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