Unit 1 - attachments

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What is developmental psychology?
How we develop mentally and psychologically
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What did Lorenzo find?
Animals aren't born with a ready image of their parents, found young animal imprinting on the first thing it sees
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Why is imprinting important for survival?
Being fed and protected
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What is the westermark effect?
If children spend considerable time together before age 6 they avoid subsequently forming sexual relationships with the individ
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What are Maccaby's steps?
i. Seeking proximity- try to keep close to parents ii.Distress at separation- if left, get upset iii. Joy of reunion iv. Orientated to one person
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What is a stimuli?
Event that causes a response
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What is a response?
An action made when because a stimulus is detected
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What did Ivan Pavlov state?
i. Food (UCS) > baby feels pleasure (UCR) ii. Mother (NS) + Food (UCS) > baby feels pleasure (UCR) iii. Mother (CS) > baby feels pleasure (CR)
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What did Schaffer and Emerson find?
When observing 60 babies from mainly working class homes, infants were most attached to person who interacted with them most, hence cupboard love is not likely to be best explanation for attachments
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What did Hazan and Shaver find?
When asking questions about early attachments, current love and attitudes towards love, found there were characteristic patterns of later romantic behaviour associated with early attachment
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What did Schaffer and emerson find about monotropy and hierachy?
Most infants had many attachment to relatives, but maintain one primary attachment figure, who responded most sensitively to them
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What did Rutter find?
There are no primary and secondary attachments, hence all attachments are integrated into one single working model
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What did Ainsworth do in Uganda?
2 year naturalistic observation of mother annd infans, found mothers who were most sensitive to infants tended to have a secure attachment
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What did Ainsworth do in Boltimore?
26 mothers and infants observed and wrote short hand in observation to record rich details, assessed using SS, found infants classed as secure behanved most sensitively with them at home during first 3 months
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What did Ainsworth do in the SS?
Tested nature of attachment, with a 9x 9 foot of 16 squares, tested stress
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What was the stress created in the SS?
i. stranger anxiety ii. separation anxiety iii. child alone anxiety iv. reunion
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What were the results collected in the SS?
Secure: 66% In-Avoidant: 22% In-Resistant: 12%
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What are problems with Ainsworths types of attachment?
Validity- measuring specific type of attachment, assuming attachment is mother Reliability- high inter rater reliability of 94%
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What did Van Ijenzdoom & Kroonemburg?
Meta analysis from 32 studies, found small differences, including: Secure most common, Avoidant 2nd most common in all accept Japan and Israel
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What is attachment disorder?
Some children can experience affects to social and emotional development
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What are characteristics of attachment disorder?
i. No preffered attachment figure ii. Innability to react & relate to others evident before age of 5 iii. Experience severe neglect or frequent change of care giver
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What are types of attachment disorder?
Inhibited- Shy and withdrawn, and unable to cope with most social situations Disinhibited- Overly friendly and attention seeking
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What did Harlows find about poor parenting?
Monkey's raise with surrogate mothers went on to become poor parents
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What did Quinton et al find about poor parenting?
Compared 50 women raise in institutions and at home, found in their 20's ex institution women were experiencing extreme difficulties acting as parents and more of their children ended up in care
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What is deprivation dwarfism?
Children in institution care are usually physically small, a suggestion for this is that there is a lack of emotional care
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What did Gardner find?
An 8 year old girl born with a malformation was severely withdrawn and physically stunted was taken to hospital, she thrived attention and soon returned to normal despite no change in diet
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What did Gardner suggest from the findings?
Emotional disturbance may affect the production of hormones, such as growth hormones which could explain the link between emotional deprivation and physical under development
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What did Hodges and Tizzard find?
65 children placed in institutions when less than 4 months old, they were given a policy not to form attachments, found Adopted were generally close attachments to parents, returned and adopted likely to seek adult attention and approval of others
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What did Rutter find?
In a study of 100 Romanian orphans, those adopted before 6 months showed normal emotional development compared to those in UK, those adopted after 6 months showed dis inhibited attachment and peer problems
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What is social development?
The aspect of a child's growth is concerned with the development of socialbility where the child learns how to relate to others and develop knowledge and skills appropriate to society
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What did the NICHD study find?
When interviewing 100 children and their parents, at age 5 the more time spent in day care the more aggressive they were
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What did Belsky and Rovine find?
Ina correlational study of infants receiving 20+ hours in daycare before 1 YO, found more insecurely attached than those at home and likely to be less successful in peer relations
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What did the Shae study find?
With time lapse the aggressiveness decreased in all groups
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What did Brown and Harris find?
Children not in care with mother's suffering depression, found many women claimed their low mood due to isolation being home with child, resulting in lack of social development
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What did Field find?
The amount of time in day care was positively correlated with the number of friends at school
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Card 2

Front

What did Lorenzo find?

Back

Animals aren't born with a ready image of their parents, found young animal imprinting on the first thing it sees

Card 3

Front

Why is imprinting important for survival?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the westermark effect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are Maccaby's steps?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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