Unit 1 AS AQA Chemistry definitions

It's the definitions for every topic in unit 1.

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Atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Mass number
sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
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Isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
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Empirical formula
Simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of each element in a compound
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Molecular formula
actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Atom economy
(mass of desired product / total mass of reactants) x 100
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Relative atomic mass
average mass of an atom relative to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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Relative molecular mass
mass of a molecule relative to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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Relative isotopic mass
the ratio of the mass of one atom of that isotope to 1/12th of the mass of one atom of carbon-12
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Electron configuration of chromium
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5
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Electron configuration of copper
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
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Mole
unit for amount of substance
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Avogadro's number
number of particles that a present in a mole (6.02 x 10^23 mol^-1)
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Lattice
a regular 3-dimensional array
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Ionic bond
electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a lattice
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Covalent bond
a shared pair of electrons
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Dative colavent bond
covalent bond formed by donation of a lone pair
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Metalic bond
a lattice of positive ions surrounded by delocalised electrons
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Electronegativity
ability of an atom to attract the electrons in a covalent bond
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Polar bond
electrons are shared unequally (due to differences in electronegativity of atoms at either end)
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First ionisation energy
energy change when one mole of electrons is removed from one mole of gaseous atoms
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Second ionisation energy
energy change when one mole of electrons is removed from one mole of unipositive gaseous atoms
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Electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a covalent bond.
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s-block element
an element with s-electrons only in its outer shell
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p-block element
an element with p-electrons in its outer shell
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d-block element
an element with s and d-electrons but no p-electrons in its outer shell
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Homologous series
a series of organic compounds with: -the same general formula -difference of CH2 between each member -a trend in physical properties -similar chemical properties
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Functional group
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
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Structural isomerism
same molecular formula, different structures
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Hydrocarbon
a compound containing hydrogen and carbon only
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Saturated
contains only C-C bonds
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Isomerism
a number of different structures having the same molecular formula
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Chain isomerism
the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of carbon atoms in the chain
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Positional isomerism
the same molecular formula, but the functional group in a different position
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Functional isomerism
the same molecular formula, but a different functional group
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Fractional distillation
separates due to differences in boiling points
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Fraction
mixture of compounds of similar boiling points
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Cracking
breaking a long chain alkane into a shorted chain e alkane and an alkene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Back

Mass number

Card 3

Front

atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of each element in a compound

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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