Understanding organisms

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What is systolic and diastolic pressure?
Systolic=the maximum pressure the heart can reach Diastolic=pressure between beats
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What increases blood pressure?
Stress, high alcohol intake, smoking, overweight
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What decreases blood pressure?
Regular exercise. healthy diet
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What does 1. high blood pressure 2.low blood pressure cause?
1.Bursting blood vessels,stroke 2.Dizziness, fainting
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Define fitness? Define health?
Fitness:the ability to do physical activity Health:being free from disease caused by bacteria or viruses
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How does carbon monoxide decrease the blood oxygen carrying capacity?
By binding with haemoglobin preventing it from combining with oxygen=less oxygen carried
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What causes heart disease?
Restricted blood flow to the heart muscle
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What increases the risk of heart disease?
A build up of cholesterol in the diet from a fatty diet and high levels of salt
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Where are plaques and what do they cause?
They are in the coronary arteries and they reduce blood flow to the heart muscle and increase blood clots and thrombosis
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What are 1.carbohydrates 2.fats 3.proteins made up of?
1.simple sugars such as glucose 2.fatty acids and glycerol 3.amino acids
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Where are 1.carbohydrates 2.fats 3.proteins stored?
1.in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats 2. under the skin and around muscles 3. Cant be stored, used for growth and repair
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What's the formula for EAR?
EAR=0.6x mass in kg
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What can too little protein cause?
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What can affect EAR?
Breast feeding, pregnancy, age
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What's the difference between 1st class proteins and 2nd class proteins?
1st calss proteins are from meat and contain all the essential amino acids
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How is BMI calculated and what are the catorgires?
mass in kg/height2 30+=obese 25-30=overweight 20-25=normal 20-=underweight
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What cause malaira?
A protozoan called plasmodium which feeds on red blood cells in humans
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How is plasmodium carried and transmitted?
It's is carried by mosquitoes(vectors-not affected by disease) and transmitted to a human through a mosquito bite
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What's a parasite?
An organism that LIVES ON/IN another living organism causing it harm
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What will help to stop the spread of malaria?
Knowing the mosquitoes life cycle e.g draining stagnant water, putting oil on surface and spraying insecticide
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What the difference between a malignant tumour and benign tumour?
A malignant tumour like cancer display uncontrolled growth and may spread and benign tumour divide slowly and are harmless
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What's a pathogen?
The disease causing organism that produce symptoms by damaging the body's cells or producing toxins
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How does the body protect itself against pathogens?
The white blood cells produce antibodies which lock onto antigens on the surface of the pathogens, killing it.
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What's so specific about antibodies?
Every pathogen has its own antigens so a specific antibody is need for each pathogen
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What is the process of immunisation/vaccination?
1. It begins with injecting a harmless pathogen carrying the right antigens 2. The white blood cells produce the right antibodies 4. Memory cells remain in the body providing long lasting immunity
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What fights against 1. viruses 2. bacteria and fungi
1. antiviral drugs 2. antibiotics
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What's a placebo and what's it used for?
A harmless pill, used in drug testing so the effect of the new drug can be assessed
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What's the difference between a blind trial and a double blind trial?
In a blind trial only the patient doesn't know the drug they are taking in a double blind the doctor does not know either.
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What happens if too much antibiotics is given?
Resistant bacteria had started to develop e.g resistant MRSA
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What does the cornea and lens do?
Refracts light rays coming into the eye
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What does the retina do?
Contains light recpetors which are sensitive to different colours, a focused image forms on the retina
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What is binocular vision?
It helps to judge distance by comparing the images in each eye if they are more different they are nearer
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Define accommodation?
They eye can focusing light on near or distant objects by altering the shape of the lens
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What happens if they eye needs to focus on a near object?
The ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments tighten, lens=less rounded
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What happens if they eye needs to focus on a distant object?
The ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments slacken, lens=more rounded
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Describe what happens when your long sighted, what lens is used to correct it?
They eye ball is too short or thin, meaning the image is focused behind the retina, a convex lens is used
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Describe what happens when your short sighted, what lens is used to correct it?
The eyeball is too long or lens is too rounded so the lens refracts too much light, the image is formed in front of the retina, a concave lens is used
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What are nerve cells called?
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Nerve impulses pass long the...
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What is the reflex arc for a reflex action?
stimulus->receptor->sensory neurone->central nervous system->motor neurone->effector->response
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What's the pathway for a spinal reflex?
receptor->sensory neurone->relay neurone-> motor neurone->effector
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How are neurones adapted?
Being long, having dendrites to pick up impulses and having an insulator sheath
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What's the gap between the neurones called?
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What happens when an impulse arrives?
It triggers the release of a transmitter substance this diffuses over the synapse. It then binds with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone... impulse continues
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Name the 5 types of drugs and give an example of each?
Depressants(alcohol), painkillers(paracetamol), stimulants(caffeine), performance enhancers(anabolic steroids), hallucinogens(LSD)
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What does a depressant do?
It blocks the transmissions of nerve impulse across the synapse by binding with receptor molecule in the membrane of the next neurone
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What do stimulants do?
Makes more neurotransmitter substances cross the synapses
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What's smokers cough the result of?
Dust and particulates in cigarette smoking irritating the epithelial lining and mucus not being moved by the cilia
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What are the effects of alcohol?
It increase the risk of accidents, its a depressant, causes the cirrhosis of the liver
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What is homeostatis?
Keeping a constant internal environment, it involves balancing bodily inputs and outputs
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What does a negative feedback system do?
Its acts to cancel out a change such as decreasing body temperature
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What is bodt temprature and why is that?
37 degrees, this is the optimum temperature for enzymes
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What can a high high temperature cause?
Heat stroke and dehydration
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What is vasodialtion?
The widening of blood vessels in the skin which cause more blood flow near the skin surface meaning more heat transfer
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How does sweating increase heat loss?
It increase heat transfer from the body to the environment, the evaporation of sweat requires the body to change sweat into water vapour
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What can low temperature cause?
Hypothermia, violent shivering
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What is vasoconstriction?
The narrowing of blood vessels this causes less blood flow and less heat transfer
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What monitors blood temperature?
Hypothalamus gland in the brain
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What controls blood sugar levels?
A hormone called insulin
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What does Type 1 diabetes mean?
The pancreas doesn't produce any insulin
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What does Type 2 diabetes mean?
The pancreas doesnt proudce enough insulin or the body doesnt react to it
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How does insulin control blood sugar levels?
It converts excess glucose in the blood into glycogen, which is stored in the liver.
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What is phototropism?
A plants growth response to light
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What is geotropism?
A plants growth response to gravity
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How do the shoots respond to light in terms of geotropism and phototropism?
They are positively phototropic(grow toward the light) and negatively geotropic(The grow away from the pull of gravity)
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How do the roots respond to light in terms of geotropism and phototropism?
They are negatively phototropic(grow away from the light) and positively geotropic(The grow with the pull of gravity)
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What are auxins?
A group of plant hormones that move through the plant in solution
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Where are more auxins found?
More are found in the shady parts of the shoots
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What does this mean?
If there is more auxins this will increase the cell length , it will increase the cell length on the shady side of the shoot causing curvature of the shoot towards the light
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Name some commercial uses of plant hormones?
Selective weed killers(increase crop yield and kill specific weeds), rooting powder, to delay or accelerate fruit ripening, to control dormancy in seeds
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What's an allele?
Different versions of the same gene
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When is a recessive allele expressed?
In the absence of the dominant allele, normally a dominant allele is expressed
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How many pair of chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs
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How do you the sex of a baby through its chromosomes?
**=girl XY=boy
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What's a mutation?
Random changes in the genes or chromosomes
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What causes genetic variation?
Mutations, fertilization, rearrangements of genes during formation of the gametes
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What does a mono hybrid cross involve?
One pair of characteristics controlled by a single gene, one allele being dominant, one recessive
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Define heterozygous?
Having different alleles
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Define homozygous?
Having the same alleles
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Define genotype?
A persons genetic make up
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Define phenotype?
The alleles which are expressed
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What causes inherited disorders?
Faulty genes most of which are recessive
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What ethical issues are raised with inherited disorders?
Deciding to have a genetic test(having the disorder can affect future lifestyle and choices) and by knowing the risk of having a family and passing on the inherited disorder
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What increases blood pressure?


Stress, high alcohol intake, smoking, overweight

Card 3


What decreases blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does 1. high blood pressure 2.low blood pressure cause?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define fitness? Define health?


Preview of the front of card 5
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