Understanding organisms

HideShow resource information
What is systolic and diastolic pressure?
Systolic=the maximum pressure the heart can reach Diastolic=pressure between beats
1 of 83
What increases blood pressure?
Stress, high alcohol intake, smoking, overweight
2 of 83
What decreases blood pressure?
Regular exercise. healthy diet
3 of 83
What does 1. high blood pressure 2.low blood pressure cause?
1.Bursting blood vessels,stroke 2.Dizziness, fainting
4 of 83
Define fitness? Define health?
Fitness:the ability to do physical activity Health:being free from disease caused by bacteria or viruses
5 of 83
How does carbon monoxide decrease the blood oxygen carrying capacity?
By binding with haemoglobin preventing it from combining with oxygen=less oxygen carried
6 of 83
What causes heart disease?
Restricted blood flow to the heart muscle
7 of 83
What increases the risk of heart disease?
A build up of cholesterol in the diet from a fatty diet and high levels of salt
8 of 83
Where are plaques and what do they cause?
They are in the coronary arteries and they reduce blood flow to the heart muscle and increase blood clots and thrombosis
9 of 83
What are 1.carbohydrates 2.fats 3.proteins made up of?
1.simple sugars such as glucose 2.fatty acids and glycerol 3.amino acids
10 of 83
Where are 1.carbohydrates 2.fats 3.proteins stored?
1.in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats 2. under the skin and around muscles 3. Cant be stored, used for growth and repair
11 of 83
What's the formula for EAR?
EAR=0.6x mass in kg
12 of 83
What can too little protein cause?
Kwashiorkor
13 of 83
What can affect EAR?
Breast feeding, pregnancy, age
14 of 83
What's the difference between 1st class proteins and 2nd class proteins?
1st calss proteins are from meat and contain all the essential amino acids
15 of 83
How is BMI calculated and what are the catorgires?
mass in kg/height2 30+=obese 25-30=overweight 20-25=normal 20-=underweight
16 of 83
What cause malaira?
A protozoan called plasmodium which feeds on red blood cells in humans
17 of 83
How is plasmodium carried and transmitted?
It's is carried by mosquitoes(vectors-not affected by disease) and transmitted to a human through a mosquito bite
18 of 83
What's a parasite?
An organism that LIVES ON/IN another living organism causing it harm
19 of 83
What will help to stop the spread of malaria?
Knowing the mosquitoes life cycle e.g draining stagnant water, putting oil on surface and spraying insecticide
20 of 83
What the difference between a malignant tumour and benign tumour?
A malignant tumour like cancer display uncontrolled growth and may spread and benign tumour divide slowly and are harmless
21 of 83
What's a pathogen?
The disease causing organism that produce symptoms by damaging the body's cells or producing toxins
22 of 83
How does the body protect itself against pathogens?
The white blood cells produce antibodies which lock onto antigens on the surface of the pathogens, killing it.
23 of 83
What's so specific about antibodies?
Every pathogen has its own antigens so a specific antibody is need for each pathogen
24 of 83
What is the process of immunisation/vaccination?
1. It begins with injecting a harmless pathogen carrying the right antigens 2. The white blood cells produce the right antibodies 4. Memory cells remain in the body providing long lasting immunity
25 of 83
What fights against 1. viruses 2. bacteria and fungi
1. antiviral drugs 2. antibiotics
26 of 83
What's a placebo and what's it used for?
A harmless pill, used in drug testing so the effect of the new drug can be assessed
27 of 83
What's the difference between a blind trial and a double blind trial?
In a blind trial only the patient doesn't know the drug they are taking in a double blind the doctor does not know either.
28 of 83
What happens if too much antibiotics is given?
Resistant bacteria had started to develop e.g resistant MRSA
29 of 83
What does the cornea and lens do?
Refracts light rays coming into the eye
30 of 83
What does the retina do?
Contains light recpetors which are sensitive to different colours, a focused image forms on the retina
31 of 83
What is binocular vision?
It helps to judge distance by comparing the images in each eye if they are more different they are nearer
32 of 83
Define accommodation?
They eye can focusing light on near or distant objects by altering the shape of the lens
33 of 83
What happens if they eye needs to focus on a near object?
The ciliary muscles relax, suspensory ligaments tighten, lens=less rounded
34 of 83
What happens if they eye needs to focus on a distant object?
The ciliary muscles contract, suspensory ligaments slacken, lens=more rounded
35 of 83
Describe what happens when your long sighted, what lens is used to correct it?
They eye ball is too short or thin, meaning the image is focused behind the retina, a convex lens is used
36 of 83
Describe what happens when your short sighted, what lens is used to correct it?
The eyeball is too long or lens is too rounded so the lens refracts too much light, the image is formed in front of the retina, a concave lens is used
37 of 83
What are nerve cells called?
Neurones
38 of 83
Nerve impulses pass long the...
axon
39 of 83
What is the reflex arc for a reflex action?
stimulus->receptor->sensory neurone->central nervous system->motor neurone->effector->response
40 of 83
What's the pathway for a spinal reflex?
receptor->sensory neurone->relay neurone-> motor neurone->effector
41 of 83
How are neurones adapted?
Being long, having dendrites to pick up impulses and having an insulator sheath
42 of 83
What's the gap between the neurones called?
Synapse
43 of 83
What happens when an impulse arrives?
It triggers the release of a transmitter substance this diffuses over the synapse. It then binds with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone... impulse continues
44 of 83
Name the 5 types of drugs and give an example of each?
Depressants(alcohol), painkillers(paracetamol), stimulants(caffeine), performance enhancers(anabolic steroids), hallucinogens(LSD)
45 of 83
What does a depressant do?
It blocks the transmissions of nerve impulse across the synapse by binding with receptor molecule in the membrane of the next neurone
46 of 83
What do stimulants do?
Makes more neurotransmitter substances cross the synapses
47 of 83
What's smokers cough the result of?
Dust and particulates in cigarette smoking irritating the epithelial lining and mucus not being moved by the cilia
48 of 83
What are the effects of alcohol?
It increase the risk of accidents, its a depressant, causes the cirrhosis of the liver
49 of 83
What is homeostatis?
Keeping a constant internal environment, it involves balancing bodily inputs and outputs
50 of 83
What does a negative feedback system do?
Its acts to cancel out a change such as decreasing body temperature
51 of 83
What is bodt temprature and why is that?
37 degrees, this is the optimum temperature for enzymes
52 of 83
What can a high high temperature cause?
Heat stroke and dehydration
53 of 83
What is vasodialtion?
The widening of blood vessels in the skin which cause more blood flow near the skin surface meaning more heat transfer
54 of 83
How does sweating increase heat loss?
It increase heat transfer from the body to the environment, the evaporation of sweat requires the body to change sweat into water vapour
55 of 83
What can low temperature cause?
Hypothermia, violent shivering
56 of 83
What is vasoconstriction?
The narrowing of blood vessels this causes less blood flow and less heat transfer
57 of 83
What monitors blood temperature?
Hypothalamus gland in the brain
58 of 83
What controls blood sugar levels?
A hormone called insulin
59 of 83
What does Type 1 diabetes mean?
The pancreas doesn't produce any insulin
60 of 83
What does Type 2 diabetes mean?
The pancreas doesnt proudce enough insulin or the body doesnt react to it
61 of 83
How does insulin control blood sugar levels?
It converts excess glucose in the blood into glycogen, which is stored in the liver.
62 of 83
What is phototropism?
A plants growth response to light
63 of 83
What is geotropism?
A plants growth response to gravity
64 of 83
How do the shoots respond to light in terms of geotropism and phototropism?
They are positively phototropic(grow toward the light) and negatively geotropic(The grow away from the pull of gravity)
65 of 83
How do the roots respond to light in terms of geotropism and phototropism?
They are negatively phototropic(grow away from the light) and positively geotropic(The grow with the pull of gravity)
66 of 83
What are auxins?
A group of plant hormones that move through the plant in solution
67 of 83
Where are more auxins found?
More are found in the shady parts of the shoots
68 of 83
What does this mean?
If there is more auxins this will increase the cell length , it will increase the cell length on the shady side of the shoot causing curvature of the shoot towards the light
69 of 83
Name some commercial uses of plant hormones?
Selective weed killers(increase crop yield and kill specific weeds), rooting powder, to delay or accelerate fruit ripening, to control dormancy in seeds
70 of 83
What's an allele?
Different versions of the same gene
71 of 83
When is a recessive allele expressed?
In the absence of the dominant allele, normally a dominant allele is expressed
72 of 83
How many pair of chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs
73 of 83
How do you the sex of a baby through its chromosomes?
XX=girl XY=boy
74 of 83
What's a mutation?
Random changes in the genes or chromosomes
75 of 83
What causes genetic variation?
Mutations, fertilization, rearrangements of genes during formation of the gametes
76 of 83
What does a mono hybrid cross involve?
One pair of characteristics controlled by a single gene, one allele being dominant, one recessive
77 of 83
Define heterozygous?
Having different alleles
78 of 83
Define homozygous?
Having the same alleles
79 of 83
Define genotype?
A persons genetic make up
80 of 83
Define phenotype?
The alleles which are expressed
81 of 83
What causes inherited disorders?
Faulty genes most of which are recessive
82 of 83
What ethical issues are raised with inherited disorders?
Deciding to have a genetic test(having the disorder can affect future lifestyle and choices) and by knowing the risk of having a family and passing on the inherited disorder
83 of 83

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What increases blood pressure?

Back

Stress, high alcohol intake, smoking, overweight

Card 3

Front

What decreases blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does 1. high blood pressure 2.low blood pressure cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define fitness? Define health?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Healthy living resources »