Understanding and Treating Mental illness

What is Bipolar I?
Major depressive and Mania
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What is BipolarII?
Major depressive and hyomania
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What is hypomania?
Midly manic episodes, not marked by impairment in functioning
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What are depressive symptoms?
3X more common than manic
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What is age of onset?
First episode usually before 30 years
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What are the features of schizphrenia?
Significantly altered perceptions and thoughts mood and behaviour
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What is the age of onset?
Early adult hood
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What are the positive symptoms?
Delusions (fixed beliefs that have no basis in fact), hallucinations (perceptions without external stimulus), disorganised thinking and behaviour
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What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
anhedonia, diminished speech output, avolition, diminished emotional expression
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What are cognitive symptoms?
Slow thinking, difficulty making decisions and distractible
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What are the historical facts?
SEvere with poor prognosis, but good long term outcome in over half of individuals
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However, what is it not common?
In general population to hear voices at some point in life
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What are features of eating disorders?
Persistent disturbance of eating or eating related behaviours resulting in altered consumption of food
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What is the age of onset?
Adolescence - early adulthood
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What are the first 2 features of Anorexia?
Refusal to maintain minimum 'normal' body weight; intense fear of gaining weight, underweight
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What are the last three features of Anorexia?
Disordered body perception, low blood pressure, deny that behaviour is problematic
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What are the first 2 factors of bulimia?
REcurrent binge eating and recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviour, varying weight, may be normal or overweigh
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What are the last 3 factors of bulimia?
Disordered body perception, dental problems, consider behaviour problematic
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What is the aetiology of mental disorder?
The origin or cause of a disorder, supernatural, psychogenic, somatogneic
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What is the prehistory?
Possession by evil spirits, trephination and exorcism
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What about early middle ages?
psychogenic and somatogenic
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What happened to witches?
Catholic church threatened by rebellions, interpreted as heresy and satanism, many women burned at the stake
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What is psychic epidemics?
Tarantism - possession by the devil, Nowadays - explanations from social psychology
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What were treatments?
Exorcism, starving, whipping, stretching
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What happened in the renaissance period?
Asylums: places set aside for people with mental disorder, patients treated almost as inmates
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What is the asylym bedlam?
Very harsh, inhumane conditions: filthy, furnished with straw, patients chained to walls or locked in small boxes, public shows for visiters
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What did Emil Kraepelin say?
Importance of brain pathology in psychological disorder, system for classifying symptoms into discrete disorders, measured effects of drugs on disordered behaviour
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What was link?
General paresis and syphilis
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What is the medical model?
Behaviour affected by changes in brain nervous system, mental disorder viewed in same way as physical illness
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What are the implications of the medical model/
Dichotomy between normal and disordered states found to occur in large numbers of normal population
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What is treated?
Diagnosis treated not individual, but this fails to recognise experience of person
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What are biological factors?
Primary in development of disorder, but social and psychological factors also critical
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What are three different therapies?
Drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery
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What is a syndrome?
Symptoms usually co-occuring
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What is anxiety?
Excessive worry, ruthlessness, muscle tension
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What is depression?
Lack of interest depressed mood, worthlessness
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What is wrong with this?
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Why classify?
Same diagnosis across world, same treatment across world, research focuses on same condition across world
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What are issues with diagnosis and classification?
Reliability: consistency of judgements, boundaries between disorders can be unclear
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What is the reliability of issues with diagnosis and classification?
consistency of judgements, boundaries between disorders can be unclear, cross-cultural inconsistencies
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Who studied Mikton and Grounds?
Ethnicity of diagnosing physician influences diagnosis
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What is validity of issues with diagnosis and classification?
Does a diagnostic category correspond accurately to the real world
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What about co-mobidity and heterogeneity?
of disorders
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What are consequences of diagnosis?
Comfort, access to services, support and community
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What are negatives of diagnosis?
Loss of personal meaning, labelling
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What did Rosenhan?
pseudopatient study, 8 individuals admitted themselves to psychiatric hospital, 7 admitted with diagnosis of scizophrenia, in hospital: stopped reporting voices, behaved as normal, average length of stay: 19 days
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What is detected?
None detected and discharged as schizophrenic in remission. Labels are sticky, stigma, self fulfilling prophecy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is BipolarII?


Major depressive and hyomania

Card 3


What is hypomania?


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Card 4


What are depressive symptoms?


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Card 5


What is age of onset?


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