types of religious organisations

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Troeltsch - churches
large, millions of members, run by bureaucratic hierarchy of professional priest, claim monopoly of truth, attractive to higher classes
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Troeltsch- sect
small, exclusive, hostile to wider society, expect high commitment, members are poor, lead by charismatic leader, monopoly of truth
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Niebuhr- denomination
midway between church and sect, less exclusive, don't appeal to all, not as demanding, tolerant of other religions, don't claim monopoly of truth
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Niebuhr- cult
highly individualistic, loose-knit, small, no exclusive belief system, lead by practitioners or therapists who claim special knowledge, tolerant, don't demand commitment, world affirming, followers often customers
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Wallis- two characteristics of religious movements
1) how they see themselves-church and sects claim truth. Denom. and cults accept other interpretations. 2) how they are seen in wider society-church and denom. seen as respectable and legitimate, sects and cults seen as deviant.
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Bruce- criticises Troeltsch
his idea of church having monopoly only applies to catholic church before 16th century protestant reformation. today a church is no longer what Troeltsch desribes because its lost monopolyo f truth so is now more a denomination
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New religious movements
since 1960's theres been explosion in number of NRM and organisations such as the moonies
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Wallis
categorised based on relationship to outside world
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World rejecting (wallis)
similar to Troeltch's sects. Have a clear notion of God, highly critical of world and seek radical change. Live communally with all life aspects controlled. e.g. moonies
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world accommodating (wallis)
breakaways from mainstream churches/denominations. Don't accept or reject world and focus on religious matters. e.g. neo-pentecostalists from catholicism
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world affirming (wallis)
similar to Niebuhr cults. Not highly organised, accept world and promise followers mainstream success like careers. Tolerant of others and claim special skills for followers to achieve. It is pyschologising- offering this worldly gratification
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world affirming example
scientology
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criticism
ignores diverse beliefs within a NRM
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Stark and Bainbridge
sects and cults are in conflict with wider society
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sects- stark and bainbridge
result from schisms in churches and denom. due to disagreements about doctrine. They promise other worldy benefits like heaven and appeal to poor
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cults-stark and bainbridge
offer this worldly benefits like good health. So appeal to those suffering from psychiatric or health problems. Categorises into 3 types based on how organised they are
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audience cults
least organised, no formal membership, little interaction between members e.g. UFO cults
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client cults
provide service to followers. 'therapies' offering self discovery and personal fulfilment e.g. palm reading
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cultic movements
most organised. demand high commitment. members not allowed to be in any other groups e.g. moonies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

small, exclusive, hostile to wider society, expect high commitment, members are poor, lead by charismatic leader, monopoly of truth

Back

Troeltsch- sect

Card 3

Front

midway between church and sect, less exclusive, don't appeal to all, not as demanding, tolerant of other religions, don't claim monopoly of truth

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

highly individualistic, loose-knit, small, no exclusive belief system, lead by practitioners or therapists who claim special knowledge, tolerant, don't demand commitment, world affirming, followers often customers

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1) how they see themselves-church and sects claim truth. Denom. and cults accept other interpretations. 2) how they are seen in wider society-church and denom. seen as respectable and legitimate, sects and cults seen as deviant.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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