Types of Behaviour

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What is meant by behaviour?
Behaviour is the responses of an organisms to its environment which help increase its chances of survival.
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What are the key features of Innate Behaviour?
Innate behaviour is determined by genes and is passed on by reproduction. The environment does not have any influence upon the response. Patterns of innate behaviour are the same/stereotypical in all members of a species.
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What are the key features of Learned Behaviour?
Learned behaviour is determined by the relationship between genes and the influences of the environment. It is not passed on by reproduction but needs to be taught. Patterns of learned behaviour vary greatly and can be influenced by experience.
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When is Innate Behaviour Particularly Useful?
Innate Behaviour is especially useful in organisms with short lifespans, simple nervous systems, solitary lifestyles and animals who do not raise their young.
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When is Learned Behaviour Particularly Useful?
Learned behaviour is especially useful in organisms with longer lifespans, with more complex nervous systems and who are raised communally or by their parents. W
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What is the advantage of Learned Behaviour over Innate Behaviour?
Learned behaviour can be adapted to the changing environment and influenced by experience whereas innate behaviour cannot.
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Reflex Behaviour
A reflex reaction is a response to a stimulus which does not involve the cerebrum. Reflex reactions are useful in self preservation, e.g. escape reflexes in earth worms
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Kinesis
Kinesis is a non-directional orientational response. Organisms will increase their rate of movement in a random direction when placed in unfavourable conditions. An example of this is woodlice in dry/moist environments.
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Taxes
Taxes is a directional orientation response. Organisms will move towards/away from a stimulus. Positive Taxis is movement towards a stimulus, Negative taxis is a movement away from a stimulus.
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Name three types of Innate Behaviour
Reflex, Kineses, Taxes
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What is Innate Behaviour?
Innate Behaviour is any animal response that occurs without the need for learning. It is an inherited response.
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What is Learned Behaviour?
Learned Behaviour respond to an animal response that changes or adapts with experience.
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Name six types of Learned Behaviour
Imprinting, Habituation, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Latent Learning and Insight Learning
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Habituation
Habituation occurs when organisms no longer responds to a stimulus which is neither harmful nor beneficial. It is the simplest form of learning.
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Imprinting
Imprinting occurs when animals become associated with another organism early on in life. After that they will only learn behaviour from animals which look like the object of their imprinting.
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Classical Conditioning
When animals learn to respond to a stimulus which is different from the stimulus which originally elicited the response. It involves an un/conditioned stimulus and response.
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Operant Conditioning
When an animal learns to carry out/avoid certain actions in order to receive a reward or avoid a punishment. The reward or punishment is referred to as a REINFORCER. Operant Conditioning is often called Trial and Error Learning.
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What are the differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning?
Operant Conditioning has only 1 stimulus whereas Classical Conditioning has 2. Classical Conditioning does not involve an additional reward/punishment and Operant Conditioning does.
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Latent Learning
Latent Learning occurs when animals explore their surroundings and retain information about it. This information may then be used in the future and may be useful in life threatening situations.
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Insight Learning
Insight Learning involves problem solving and integrating information from past experiences. Once a problem has been solved, the solution is remembered and may be used again.
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Card 2

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What are the key features of Innate Behaviour?

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Innate behaviour is determined by genes and is passed on by reproduction. The environment does not have any influence upon the response. Patterns of innate behaviour are the same/stereotypical in all members of a species.

Card 3

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What are the key features of Learned Behaviour?

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Card 4

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When is Innate Behaviour Particularly Useful?

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When is Learned Behaviour Particularly Useful?

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