Types of LTM

What is Episodic Memory?
A LTM store for personal events. It includes memories of when the events occurred and of the people, objects, places and behaviours involved. Memories from this store have to be retrieved consciously and with effort
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What is Semantic Memory?
A LTM store for our knowledge of the world. This includes facts and our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. These memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately
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What is Prodedural Memory?
A LTM store for our knowledge of how to do things. This includes our memories of learned skills. We usually recall these memories without making a conscious or deliberate effort
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AO3: Episodic Memory is Supported by Case Study Evidence
Clinical studies of amnesia (HM and Clive Wearing) - difficulty recalling past events. Semantic memories - unaffected (e.g. HM didn't remember stroking a dog, but didn't need the word 'dog' explained to him). Supports different memory stores in LTM
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AO3: Brain Scan Studies Show That There are Different LTM Stores
Tulving et al. (1994) - participants to perform various memory tasts whilst in a PET scanner. Episodic and semantic memories - prefrontal cortex; semantic in left side and episodic in right prefrontal cortex. Supports validity - physical evidence
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AO3: Identifying Different LTM Stores has Real-life Applications
Belleville et al. (2006) - episodic memories - improved in older people with mild cognitive impairments. Training = improvements (compared to controls). Benefit of distinguishing between different types of LTM - allows treatment to be developed
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AO3: There are Problems With Clinical Evidence
Evidence based on clinical cases (HM and Clive Wearing) - what happens when memory is damaged. Lack of control of different variables (e.g. can't control location of brain damage). Difficult to generalise. Can't determine exact nature of LTM
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AO3: A Limitation of Tulving's Approach is That There may be Only Two Types of LTM
Cohen and Squire (1980) - episodic/semantic memories stored in 1 LTM store (declarative memory: memories consciously recalled). Procedural memory - different (it's non-declarative). Different definitions should be correct - influences memory studies
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Card 2

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What is Semantic Memory?

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A LTM store for our knowledge of the world. This includes facts and our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. These memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately

Card 3

Front

What is Prodedural Memory?

Back

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Card 4

Front

AO3: Episodic Memory is Supported by Case Study Evidence

Back

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Card 5

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AO3: Brain Scan Studies Show That There are Different LTM Stores

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