types and methods of practice

what is part practice
working on an isolated sub-routine with the aim of perfecting it
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when is part practice used
it is used with skills that are low in organisation - easily broken down into separate sub-routines. if the task is complex and dangerous.
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why is part practice used
it allows performers to make sense of a skill, gaining confidence as they learn each element. reduces the possibility of overload.
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give a practical example of part practice.
practising the backswing only in the tennis serve
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what is whole practice
whole practice is skills being taught without breaking down into sub-routines or parts.
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when is whole practice used
with skills that are high in organisation and need to be taught as a whole.
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why is whole practice used
it allows the performer to experience the feel of the skill - kinaesthesis
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give examples of whole practice
sprinting because of their cyclic or continuous nature, will not break down into sub-routines.
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what is whole part whole practice
practising the whole skill, then practising a sub-routine in isolation, then practising the whole skill again.
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when is whole part whole practice used
with serial skills or skills with low organisation when sub-routines has distinct features
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why is whole part whole used
to recognise strengths and weaknesses, then correct specific skill errors. allows some feel of skill
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give a practical example of whole part whole practise
1) practice whole swimming stroke. 2) practice leg kick in isolation (using a float) 3) practice the whole stroke again.
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what is progressive-part practice
skills are broken down into sub-routines; performer learns one link, then ta second link and practices these, then further links are then added on (known as chaining)
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when is progressive-part practice used
with complex skills as it reduces information load. with low organisation skills. good for serial skills.
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why is progressive-part practice used
helpful to allow performer to learn links between sub-routines and transfer these into the whole skill.
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give an example for progressive-part practice.
gymnastic floor routine, triple jump, lay-up sot in basketball, trampoline routine.
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what is massed practice.
practice sessions involves very short or no rest intervals
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when is massed practice used
good for discrete skills of short duration. with highly motivated performers with good fitness levels.
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why is massed practice used
to groove skills. long sessions used when coach wants to simulate elements of fatigue.
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give practical examples of massed practice
basketball players practising their shooting skills by doing drills which involve many shots form different positions around the key
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what is distributed practice
practice sessions with rest intervals
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when is distributed practice used
with continuous skills. with beginners or those with low levels of fitness and motivation.
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why is distributed practice used
rest intervals allow performer to receive feedback. helps maintain motivation and good for dangerous or complex skills.
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give practical examples of distributed practice
swimmer swims a width and then has a rest while the teacher gives feedback.
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what is fixed practice
a specific movement patter is practised repeatedly in a stable environment; sometimes called a drill.
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when is fixed practice used
with closed skills that require specific movement patterns to become overlearned
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why is fixed practice used
allow skills to become habitual and automatic. in events where conditions
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what is varied practice
when a skill is practised in many environments
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when is varied practice used
with open skills, practice conditions must be as realistic as possible.
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why is varied practice used
allows the development of experiances in long-term memory, which performer can draw on. develops performer's perceptual and decision-making skills.
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practical example of varied practice
small sided game in football, where performer can work on passing, positional play and strategy.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

when is part practice used

Back

it is used with skills that are low in organisation - easily broken down into separate sub-routines. if the task is complex and dangerous.

Card 3

Front

why is part practice used

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

give a practical example of part practice.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is whole practice

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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