Turning to Crime.

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Upbringing; Learning from Others intro?
CB is usually influenced by family and friends - rutherland: learn CB by being in a group where CB is the norm, you see it as acceptable and learn how to commit offences.
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Upbringing; Learning from Others study?
Bandura - Children imitate aggressive behaviour so family and friends may be imitating if they take part in criminal behaviour.
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Upbringing; Learning from Others conclusion?
We learn through the social learning theory to commit crimes.
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Upbringing; Disrupted Families intro?
Johnson - Problematic parents = problematic children. He looked at NY mothers, found that inconsistent rules, use of guilt and uncontroleable anger led to problem
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Upbringing; Disrupted Families study?
Farrington - 411 White working class males from South London from 6 Primary schools, 93% interviewed age 48.. 91% convicted 7% chronic offenders.. all had things like young mums, convicted parent in common.
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Upbringing; Disrupted Families conclusion?
The family influences criminal behaviour
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Upbringing; Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods intro?
Low socioeconomic status = more criminal behaviour as the neighbourhoods have less control
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Upbringing; Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods study?
Wikstrom - 700 year 7's from peterborough, parents questioned/questions on family life, substance, offences and school, 1:1 on environment and environment data via postal surveys. Disadvantaged = more opportunities for crime
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Upbringing; Poverty and Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods conclusion?
The exposure to the environment causes crime rather than the actual environment itself.
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Biology; Brain Dysfunction intro?
Prefrontal cortex = morality and conscience, amygdala = emotion. If faulty may have no conscience or emotions so more likely to commit criminal offences.
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Biology; Brain Dysfunction study?
Raine - 41 NGRI's and 41 controls, matched on age and gender, no meds for two weeks, glucose tracer injected and did target recognition task 32 minutes, PET scans, less activity in prefrontal.. amygdala and hippocampus more activity in right.
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Biology; Brain Dysfunction conclusion?
Lack of remorse and violence leads to criminal behaviour.
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Biology; Genes and Serotonin intro?
Can criminal behaviour be inherited by genetic abnormalities?, Neurotransmitters are suggested as a cause of aggressive behaviour.
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Biology; Genes and Serotonin study?
Brunner et al - 1 family in The Netherlands with borderline mental retardation + violent behaviour. Five males, urine samples.. all had x chromozone mutation which produced MAOA.. can't break down serotonin.
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Biology; Genes and Serotonin conclusion?
Genetic sources considered as cause of aggressive behaviour.
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Biology; Gender intro?
Males are more likely to commit crimes, biological reason may exist.
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Biology; Gender intro theory?
Daly and Wilson - Males show more risk-taking behaviour as under pressure to reproduce. Female has a choice so leads to intra-sexual competition. Can explain larger number of males committing murder. theres a link between hormones and aggression.
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Biology; Gender study?
Dabbs - 692 prison inmates had testosterone levels measured via saliva samples, behaviour from prison records, sex and violence crimes = high testosterone, property crimes = low testosterone
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Biology; Gender conclusion?
Differences suggest link between testosterone and violent crimes.
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Cognitive; Criminal Thinking Patterns intro?
Criminals may think differently to non-criminals, criminal behaviour can be explained as a result of their thought processes
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Cognitive; Criminal Thinking Patterns study?
Yochelson + Samenow - 255 convicted males, 1/2 insane, 14 years of interviews, 52 thinking errors found, 9 showed changes after therapy
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Cognitive; Criminal Thinking Patterns conclusion?
Non criminals show say errors as criminals but criminals show them more often.
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Cognitive; Moral Development and Crime intro?
Awareness of right and wrong in society, Kohlberg - moral development theory 6-7 years (stage 1 - punishment + obedience and stage 2 - hedonistic orientation) Early teens (Stage 3 - conformity + Stage 4 - Law and Order)
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Cognitive; Moral Development and Crime study?
Palmer - 332 non offenders and some male offenders from UK, self reports on moral reasoning and actual offences, male offenders = pre-conventional and non offenders = conventional. Female non offenders = highest moral reasoning
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Cognitive; Moral Development and Crime conclusion?
Low levels of moral development may be the cause of criminal behaviour
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Cognitive; Social Cognition intro?
Attribution (how people explain own behaviour) - Internal = result of themselves Situational = result of something/one else. Self Serving Bias = success is attributed to self and failings to something else.
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Cognitive; Social Cognition study?
Scully and Marolla - 114 convicted rapists, interviews on how criminal behaviour is justified, 40% blamed victim 60% blamed alcohol/drugs.
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Cognitive; Social Cognition conclusion?
Self serving bias helps offenders keep a positive self image.
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Upbringing; Learning from Others study?

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Bandura - Children imitate aggressive behaviour so family and friends may be imitating if they take part in criminal behaviour.

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Upbringing; Learning from Others conclusion?

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Upbringing; Disrupted Families intro?

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Upbringing; Disrupted Families study?

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