Tulving's Explanation Of LTM

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How many stores did Tulving suggest the LTM was split into?
2- Semantic and episodic
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What is episodic memory?
Memory for events, like a mental diary, it remembers experiences and is linked to time and context
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What is semantic memory?
Memory for facts, remembers facts, rules, meanings words etc, it also links facts together, for example school and learning or restaurant and food
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What is implicit memory?
Procedural memories- learning motor skills, like riding a bike or playing an instrument
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Are the episodic and semantic memory stores interrelated?
Yes, episodic relies on semantic because it needs to know previous facts (like who everyone is and what you do in a certain place) in order to lay down new memories, however semantic doesn't rely on episodic at all
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Time/spacing of episodic?
Continuous time and context referencing input
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Time/spacing of semantic?
Independent of time referencing, input can be fragmented and not continuous
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Retrieval in EM?
Cues which are encoded at the point of encoding
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Retrieval in SM?
Retrieval is possible whenever with out cues
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Forgetting in EM?
Forgetting happens due to retrieval cue failure and the memories can be changed and transformed
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Forgetting in SM?
More robust, less susceptible to change
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Supporting evidence
Brain scans-shows 2 different areas of the brain when recalling facts or events, Case studies- KC, motorbike accident, could recall general knowledge but not personal events
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Conflicting Evidence
Case studies- Clive and HM could learn new skills and remember old skills, this then lead to them adding another store called the procedural memory
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Testability
It is hard to test because they can not be studied in isolation, we cant know for certain if people are using a certain part of the brain or not. In addition, the likelihood of people using semantic memory in episodic recall is high
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Card 2

Front

What is episodic memory?

Back

Memory for events, like a mental diary, it remembers experiences and is linked to time and context

Card 3

Front

What is semantic memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is implicit memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Are the episodic and semantic memory stores interrelated?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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