How did Richard gain powerful connections?
trusted by brother (EdwardIV)- and granted Duke of york so could act very much on his own authroity
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What did Edward get Richard involved in?
1469- when the Earl of Warwick (kingmaker) betrayed edward by supporting a lancastrian plot to overthrow him- at 17 called to be physically involved in the battle to restore ed to throne
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How else did he help Edward to keep the throne?
he was also complict in the murder of henry VI and the execution of his eldest sibling (George, duke of clarence had become overmighty= high treason 1478)
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How did edward reward richards loyalty?
gave him vast offices and estaes in North (later became head of the council of the north)-January 1483 granted a Palatine in the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland- Later the capcity to conquer and annex power from scotland to his palatine
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What did Richard become and why was he not considered dangerous to the king?
Over- mighty subject (power greater than Warwicks in 1460s) but not dangerous to the king due to result of continued loyalty
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How did the queen (Elizabeth Woodville) feel about Richards level of power?
Resentment grew at court between richard and the queen and her family(woodvillies) as they became increasingly fearful and jealous of his levels of power
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How did Richard feel about the Queen?
he distrusted her too as the queen used her influence over the king to elevate the position of her family
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What consequence did this have whilst the king was alive?
Richard barely ventured to court within the last 4 years of the kings life- presence of king ensured their powers were balenced
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What set Richards political future in doubt and why?
Edward IV dying unexpectedly on the 9th April 1483- Rich in north when he died so had little chance to influence key decisions being made and the Woodvilles were keen to keep it that way
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What created a power struggle between Elizabeth and Richard?
Prince Edward was only 12 and was going to be crowned king of England but needed support of a protector to ensure his safety on the throne (rich wanted to be protector but Queen wanted her or her bro)
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Where was the prince at this time and why was he safe?
as was customary for all princes of wales, Edward V was living in Ludlow under the care of his Uncle Anthony Rivers (queens bro) and so out of the grasp of both of them
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Why did Richard gain the upper hand?
Woodvilles becoming increasingly unpopular at court and several noble wanted Richard to replace his brother- Lord William Hastings was first to turn who urged Richard to return to court to support the opposing Woodville plot to seize the crown
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When did Richard seize the young prince?
30th of April
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What happened in May 1483?
Richs claim was strong so he wrote the queen assuring her of his honorable intentions towards his nephew and that he would escort Edward and escort him safely back to london- belived by queen and bro so Anthony met rich at Northampton
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What went wrong when Richard and rivers met?
by this time Rich was supported by major nobels (Buckingham, Lord Howard, northumberland and lord Lovell) so many of Edward V's household were arrested (thomas Vaughn and richard grey) and edward was taken into richards custody
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What did the queen do in response and how successful was it?
attempted to raise an army, led by her son (thomas grey) but it was unsucessful due to her unpopularity at court and so the queen, her daughters and her son richard were forced into sanctuary at Westminster abbey
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What happened on the 4th of May 1483?
Richard was able to enter London unopposed where he placed edward in the tower of London(claimed protection agasit woodvilles) - he then appealed to Kings council who confirmed richard as official protector.
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How did Richard gain more support from Nobels??
promoted Lord howard , Lord lovell and Earl of Northumberland
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how did Lord Hastings feel at this time, why and what did it lead to?
uneasy with the usurpation of the young king, so he reduces support- things getting aggresive as on the 10th june rich called for miltary support from the north so on the 13th June Hastings was arrested for treason and later arrested
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What was the 22nd of june?
the day Richard had said he intended for Edward to be crowned king but instead sermons were preached at st pauls cathedral of the illegitimacy of Edward IV
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When was Richard Crowned King and why?
6 th of June because a petition was sighed by Parliament for Richard to take the throne
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What happened to the Princes?
it is rumored that between July-Oct they were 'disposed of'- no clear evidence but the Kingdom was plagued with rumors of their deaths
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What were the initial challenges to Richards throne?
the North V south, Buckinghams rebellion and Richards agressive attitude
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What was the North v South divide?
Resentment of the southern gentry towards Richards Northen affinity which led to limited support and it is one suggested reason behind the Kent rebellion
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Why was Lord Buckingham a threat?
Becoming 'over-mighty' and he was ambitous. it was also rumored that he was responsible for the disapperances of the princes
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When was Buckinghams rebellion?
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What were the causes?
Dissatisfaction with the positionin comparison to the Northen nobility- Maybe?= wanted crown himself/ converted to tudor
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Who supported it and how was it crushed?
Supported by Henry Tudor and crushed by Howard and Lovell
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When was Richards attitude proved to be aggressive?
in his dealings with hastings and he was considered to be 'over- aggresive' in his rise to the throne which dived the nobility and lost him vital support
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Where did the majority of Richards support come from and why did he need it?
core support came from the North and he relied significantly on it to back his move for the throne
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Who were Richards central support and how was it viewed by the south?
Sir William Catesby and Sir Richard Radcliffe- very unpopular in the south
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What did Richard use to try and gain extra support?
he offered generous patronage to those who would openly support him (Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers and Lord Henry Grey) but few were keen to commit to an upserper
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How did this make him unpopular?
did not always provide it- the Earl of Northumberlands support dwindled throughout richard reign as his power was not increased
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What added to Richards Unpopularity?
the sudden death of his son Edwardand his wife Anne Neville (accused of poisoning her)
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What was a Personal Monarchy?
the country had the ability to prosper of fail based on the monarchs leadership abillities
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What were Richards main goals?
Outlaw corruption. restore peace, reform the legal system, move around the country so people could see him
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What did he do in the council?
retained 24 of Edwards Councillors and transformed his household into the formal council of the Northmgranting it full powers to rein in his absence
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What did this new formal council of the North do?
it was offically known as a branch of the royal council and met 4 times a year in york- first president= john de la pole
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What was the Council of Requests and supplications?
it intended to deal with the plights of poor people in search of justice
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What were the 3 key areas rich looked at in gaining finical stability?
Retrenchment (cutting down on spending), Re-endowment (finding other ways to raise royal revenue) and avocating a policy of strict punishment alongside reward and responnsiblity to deal with over-mighty subjects
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What did this allow Richard to do?
award grants of almost £12,000 a year for loyal services- known for bringing a degree of stability to the collection of royal revenue
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Why did Rich need support from the nobility and who supported him?
to maintain stability and to advise him in his councils and keep stability in the provences
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What is a measure of Richards success?
that even though the majority of his support came from the North no English peers declacred for henry at the BOB until richard had been disposed of as king
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What was Henry Tudors claim to the throne?
Father (edmund tudor)= grandson of Henry V- Mother(Margret Beauford)= descendant of Edward III (strongest claim)
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What strengthened his claim?
his relasonship (gaurdian) with his uncle (jasper tudor) - elevated during Herny VI reigns as Jasper was loyal to the Lancastrian cause
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What happened to Henry and Jasper under Edward IV?
confiscated both of their estates and forced them into exile from 1471- spent majority of time in brittany
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What agreement did Margret Beauford and Elizabeth Woodville make?
a marriage agreement stating that elizabeth would marry Henry, strenghing his claim to the throne and hoping to gain him more support in england
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What was the deal that Rich struck with the Duke Francis II?
richard supply him with english archers to defend Brittany from France- if they no longer allowed tudors safety
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What did King Charles VIII of france do?
welcome henry and granted them financial and miltary support againsit richard (charles could attack brittany whilst tudor was attacking england)
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When did henry set sail and who with?
1st August 1485- with between 400-500 welsh and english loyalists and approximately 1500 french troops- described as the 'worst rable one could find' but were tough mercenaries
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When and where did the land?
7th August 1485- Mill bay in dale from there they marched north heading through Haverfordwest and the along the cardigan coastline
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What had Henry done by the 12th of August?
gathered support from key welsh nobels- William ap Gruffudd (500 men) and Rhys ap Thomas (800 men)
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By the time tudor reached shewsbury how big was his army?
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Who else did Herny aqquire men from and how many?
Gilbert Thomas - 500 men
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Who was it belived pledge their support to tudor secertly and why?
Stanley brothers- Richard kidnapped Thomas stanleys son- wiliam stanley had a firece reputation for changing alliences so their vast armies (3000 men) could not be counted on
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Where was Richard at this time and how big was his army?
Nottingham castle- 10,000 men
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Who did Richard think would stop Henry before he posed any real threat?
Rhys ap Thomas in the south and the Stanleys in the North
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When was the Battle of Bosworth?
22nd of August 1485- two armies met just outside the small villageof Market Bosworth, Leicester
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Why was Henry's army at a disadvantage?
henrny was militarily inexperienced (relied on Pembroke and oxford to guide him) and he only had 5000-6000 men which had been marching for two weeks therefore were hungry and not rested. Also most men were tenant farmers and were lightly armed
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Why was Richards army at an advantage?
Rich had vast milarty experice and his army was also double the size of henrys (10,000) and better eqppiued with more cavalry than Tudor- had more time to prepare so took postion on higher ground and use of heavier artilary
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When did the battle start and how long did it last?
in the morning with Tudor's troops charging across the marshland- lasted 3 hours with high casulties on both sides
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What was the turning point?
Richard decided to make a strike at Henry caused by Northumberland's refusal to mobilise his reserve to support
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What did Richard do?
Richard accompanied by 100 men made a vicious assulat on Tudor killing Tudors Stanadr bearer before his personal gaurd closed ranks on him
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What did William Stanley then do?
Sent a cavalry of 500 men to support Tudor and richard was killed by will stanley as he refused to quit and became overwhelmed
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What other important people were killed?
Yorkist, Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Northumberland fled before a lancastrian victory was called
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What happend to Richard and Henry?
Richards naked body was tied to a mule and taken to Lancaster to be buried- Crown placed on Tudors head by Lord Stanley making him the new king of England
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What was his direct aim as monarch?
remain king and create an unchallengeable line of sucession
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Why did Henry backdate his regin?
he back dated to the day before the B.O.B - this meant that Richard was the rebel not himself, and those who had supported richard could be tried under the act of attainder
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When was Henry crowned King of England?
30th of October 1485
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Why was this chosen as the date?
it was a week before parliment met- this deined any nobels to suggest that parliment had a hand in making him king
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Why did Henry NEED papal dispensation to marry elizabeth of york and why did he WANT it?
had to be done as they were cousins but it also appeared that the pope was giving support for henry to be the rightful King of England and therfore chosen by god
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When did Henry marry Elizabeth and what did this marriage do?
18th Jan 1486- allowed the families of york and lancaster to be alligined and the timing showed that his selection of king did not depend on his wife
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How did Henry reward those who helped him in his quest to become king?
Made Jasper Tudor Earl of Bedford, John de Vere Earl of Oxford, Thomas stanley became Earl of derby and Willam stanley became Chamberlin of the kings household
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Who were also granted high offices of state?
John Morton, Reginald Bray and Richard fox (many of them kept them for most of their lives)
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What was Henry open to the idea of?
allowing ex-yorkists being part of his court so long as they proved their loyalty to the new king
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Who were relsed when Henry was sure of their loyalty?
Thomas howard (earl of Surrey) and Henry percy (earl of northumberland)
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How did henry eradicate the potential rival of Edward Earl of Warwick (Richards newphew)?
kept in the tower of london for the remainder of his life
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How were Edward IV's nephews dealt with?
William (de la pole)= impriosned in tower of london for 38 years, Edmund= arrested and executed, Richard= exiled for life
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Why did many think that Henry's crown would not be secure for long?
was an unkown noble man with a significantly greater knowledge of the outer areas rather than England- one of his major concerns was keeping both the nobels and commoners contented whilst dealing with the politcal and economical instabillity
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When was the lovell and Stafford rising?
April 18486- an incident that showed henry as a gracious victor
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What happened during the rising?
Lord Lovell and the stafford brothers (humphrey and thomas) led a gropu of minor nobilty in a rising againsit henry VII during his roysl progress to the North
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Where were these rebels before the rising?
had been living in sanctuary at colchester (escaped the BOB) where the king could not arrest them
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Where did the rebels go after breaking sancutary?
Lovell headed to the North to ambush the king and the staffords to the west to drum up support for their plight
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How did henry stop them?
he headed them off with an armed force and offered them the oppertunity to surreneder where they would recive a pardon and an oppertunity to reconlie and regain their status
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What did the men do?
Lovell escaped and fleed to flanders ans stafford tried to return to sanctury but was arrested by the kings men (despite being againsit church etiquttee)
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What happned to the stafford brothers?
both men were sent to the tower of london but humphrey was executed and thomas pardoned ensuring he remained loyal after
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Who was Sir thomas vaughn and what did he plan to do?
he was a welsh yorkist who planned to sieze brecon castle and the execute Henry
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How was the rising crushed?
Henrys alliance with Rhys ap Thomas assured this got no futher than a plan and so his rising was crushed
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What was the cause of the Yorkshire risings in 1489?
it was as a result of increased tax demands made by the king so he might persue support of Brittany
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Who was it escpically disliked by?
the economically poor and pro yorkist county of yorkshire made worse by the fact that it was recovering from the impact of a poor harvest
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Why did futher resenment grow?
other northen counties (northhampton, durham) were not expected to pay these taxes instead to pay to protect england from scotland
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What did the Earl of Northumberland (Henry Percy) try and do and what happened to him?
tried to negotiate a simlar deal for yorkshire but it was dismissed by the king and the earl was murdered in yorkW
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What happens after Northumberland is murdered?
Sir John Egremont takes advantage of the unpopularity of Northumberland and raisies support
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How did the king stop this rising?
Earl of Surrey sent to deal with Egremont- Rebels defeated but Egremont fled to flanders- king gos to north to offer pardons but no futher revenue collected
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What happens with the New Earl of Northumberland?
he is a minor so Earl of surrey is appointed to assit him- with no interest in the north, surrey was a loyal servant to the king and enforced henrys new polices
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what caused the cornwall rising in 1497?
Henry needed to finace an armed force in preperation to defend an attack from scotland from King James IV and perkin warbeck
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Who disliked the tax?
many in cornwall refused to pay it in defence of the North as they felt they would not be under any direct threat
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What did the rebels do in May 1497 and who was their leader?
left Bodmin on their way to london - minor noble = Lord Audley
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How big was the rebel army by the 16th of june and where were they?
15,000 and recahed the outskirts of the capital. They set up camp on Blackheath
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Who conforted the rebels?
An army led by the earl of Oxford , Rhys ao Thomas and Lord Daubeney. (500-800 rebels killed in battle)
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What did the cornish risings show King Henry?
he was pre-occupied with the Northen invasion and it demonstared that England was completly unprepared for miltary action againsit scotland so henry opted for a route of diplomacy
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What impacts did the rebellions have?
1. showed oppsition came from taxation and not yorkist threat 2. england not prepared to finace any war in name of defending the tudor line 3. a policy of miltary action was a last resort
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How did they affect Henrys style of leadership?
he preffered methods of dipolmacy ratjer than war. Fincally and militarly this was a postive descion for both monarch and countrywhich led many to be comfotable with his governace of the country
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What rumors began circling in the winter of 1486?
That the Earl of Warwick had died under the conditions of his imprisonment in the tower of london
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Who took advantage of these rumors and how?
an over ambitious priest, Richard symmons- used it as an oppertunity to claim that one of his pupils (lambert simnel) had resemblance to Edward IV's children (despite having never seen them)
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What did symmonds then do?
use his postion amongst the clergy to convince the common people that simnel was edwards youngst son- however this was met with limited support so symmonds then claimed that simnel was Warwick
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How did the idea gain limited momentum?
via the support of yorkist nobel John de la pole
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Where did symonds take simnel for futher support?
Ireland (a yorkist stronghold) - limited support here but key irish nobilty (Lord deputy) siezed the oppertunity to disgruntle the king. they had simnel declaerd king in dublin
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What did Margret of Burgandy do?
spent money and a force of 2000 german mercenaries to ireland
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What effect did this have?
this encourged bravery in the Irish who then had simnel crowned king offically
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What did Henry do?
he did not act until Jan 1487 but he then put Elizabeth Woodville and the Marquis of Dorset under house arrest and removing their land- he also had minor yorkist nobels areestes, declared trators and executed
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How did Henry dispel the myth?
He showed tje real Earl of Warwick around London
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What did Lincon then do?
fled to the court of Margret of Burgandy making it clear that milatary action would soon follow- lincon, lovell and german miltary man schwartz landed in ireland where lincon became the leader of the rebellion - planned to put his own claim forward
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Where did Lincon march when he landed in lancashire on june 4th 1487?
across the pennines beofr turning south
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Why did do this and was it successful?
he hoped to gather support on route but faced a population exhausted by war and encourged at the thought of joing the irsish rebel army
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When and where did the two sides meet?
16th june 1487 at Newark, East stoke- despsite the royal army outnumbering the rebels (12,000 to 8,000) it took 3 hours to defeat them
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What happened to the rebels?
Lovell, Lincoln, schwartz were all killed along with half theri army- Symmonds and Simnel were captured
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What happened to Symmonds and Simnel?
Symonds sentenced to life imprisonment in a bishops prison and understanding that simnel was manipulated by those around him he let the boy work as a turnspit in kitchen and was then promoted to royal falconer
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What did Henry do ensure the rebellion was stopped?
used his second parliment to pass 28 Acts of Attanider agaisit those involded in the plot
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When did Henry have Elizabeth crowned Queen?
25th Nov 1487
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What was the purpose of this timing?
1. satisfy disaffected yorkists 2. provide a feel good factor to the people by allowing an opperunity for public celebration 3. unite the nation by securing goodwill of the people
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What happened in November 1491?
17 year old Warbeck arrived in Cork, Ireland on board his masters silk merchant ship
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Who was Warbeck?
suggested that he was an apprentice, orignally from tournai, france
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Why is it suggested this plot came about?
"his slik wearing expolits so impressed the townsfolk that they assumed he was the Earl of Warwick"- suggested the plot had been hatched long before he set foot in ireland
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Why did the plot gain credibility?
no one at the time knew what the formers kings children looked like or what had happened to them, allowing the possiblity that they escaped the tower
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What did Charles VIII do in March 1492?
offer to support Warbeck in his quest for the english throne
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Why did Charles do this?
He wanted to use Warbeck as a distraction for Henry so he could take control of Brittany without english support for the region
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How did Charles's support help the plot?
it gave the consiracy an air of authority and publicity- within 6 months over 100 english yorkists had joined warbeck in paris
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What happened in November 1492?
the treaty of Etaples was sighned- one of the clauses was that charles would not support enemies of Henry
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What did this force warbeck to do?
Flee to flanders and the court of Margret of Burgandy
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What did Margret of Buegandy do?
publically reconised Warbeck as her newphew
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What did she hope this would do?
attract dissident yorkist to her court and stir up trouble in england leading to a yorkist rebellion
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What did this cause Henry to do?
Break off all trade with Flanders putting his own economy at risk
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Who did Margaret get to join her?
Newly elected Holy Roman Emperor and he to reconised Warbeck as Richard
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how long would it take these combined forces to rasie an army to invade england?
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What was Henry doing at this time?
drew up a list of those implacated in the plot and used parliment in 1495 to pass a number of Acts of Attainder (induling william stanley)- many of the suspects were executed (inculding stanley)
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What did Warbeck do in July 1495 and was it successful?
lauch an invasion landing in Deal, Kent- it was a huge flop as he failed to secure local support and so turned and headed directly to ireland for support (he abandoned the mercenries who had been hired to help him)
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Was Warbeck Successful in Ireland?
he laid siege to the town of Waterford for 11 days but no evidnce of success here either
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Where did Warbeck go next and who supported him?
Scotland and James IV
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Why and how did James IV support him?
thought he could use Warbeck as a tool againsit Henry and gave warbeck to his cousin Lady Catherine Gordon to marry with an annual pension of £1200- he also promised physical support if the oppertunity to attack arrived
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Upon attack of the Northen boarder, why was Warbeck lacking support?
scottish had a love of plundering to fighting too but also because the english had been forewarned of the attack by henrys intelligance agents
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How and why did James IV betray warbeck?
he decided to sighn a peace treaty with england as it was in scotlands best interests and warbecks usefulness had expired
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Where di Warbeck go after he was forced to flee form scotland?
fled back to Ireland no again faced no support then hearing of the cornish rebellion he set sail for devon hopping to harness support but it already failed when he got there
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What did Warbeck do in Devon?
appealded to some west countrymen where a few thousand men did rebel marched on Exeter and besieged the city
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Was this successful?
Confornted with the royal army at tauton the rebel army dispersed
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What did Warbeck then do?
seek sanctuary at Beaulieu Abbey hampshire- in August 1497 he was persauded to give himself up
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What did Henry do to him?
didnt accuse him of treason and allowed him to live at court with his wife
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How did Warbeck make things worse for himself?
He attempted to escape in 1498
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What did this force Henry to do?
place him in the tower of london (some historian belive that warbeck plotted with the Earl of Warwick whilst he was here to escape the tower and murder the king)
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What happened to Warwick and Warbeck in November 1499?
Warbeck= convicted of trying to escape the tower so hung, drawn and quatered Warwick= found gulity of treason and beheaded (he was at th center of many plots to destroy henry involed or not)
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What did Henry not benifit from that previous kings had?
The Great Chain of being/ Divine right of kings
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Who did Henry need to assert dominace over if he wished to stay unchallenged?
nobels who had enjoyed the oppertunity to exert semi-regal power and Wales going as far as to rule almost independantly from the crown
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What was his aim and what change did his regin see?
to establish his will ruthlessly with the idea that the rest of soceity would follow suit of the nobiltiy - move from the Fedual service to the beginnig of the sevice nobilty
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How many nobel famililes were there at the beging of henrys regin?
60- significant lack of male heirs due to a lack of medical knowlagde
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Why did Henry deliberatly keep this numbers down?
1. upon dying of a nobel line the crown stood to benifit fincal gain (takes their land etc) 2. meant there would be less oppertunity for rivilry for the crown and ensured only those who provieded loyalty got rewards 3. less strain on royal purse
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When Henry needed to award nobilty to gain loyalty he used the order of the Garter, what was this?
a knighthood of the highest order of chivalry- allowed the king to grant prestiage without having to strain himself fincally
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by 1509 how many nobel familes were there?
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Henry bulit up his closetest male realtives and allies, how did he promote Jasper tudor and the Earl of Surrey?
Jasper= Earl of bedford Earl of shewsbury= was happy to use his influence to enforce henryw will
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How was the Earl of Northumberland Promoted and what happened to him?
sent up to North to protect kings interest but murdered
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What did he make his son Arthuer (3 years old)?
Earl of Northumberland-Earl of surrey appointed to assit him and he was loyal as he had no personal interest in the North
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Why did he control the marriages of the nobles?
to ensure they did not link themselves with great heiresses in order to create new factions.
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What did he do to those who did not ask his permission?
fined them- Jasper Tudors widow Katherine Woodville married Sir Richard wingfiled without Henry permission and was fined £2000
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How else did Henry make sure the nobles did not become over mighty?
kept familles of great magnets (percys, Staffords, Northumberland, buckinham) under close surveillance and maintain checks on familes with the potential to become over mighty
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What did Henry rely on to ensure the compliance of the nobles?
law- did not create any new legisation just used laws from the middle ages more successfully than he predecessors
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What were 'Acts of Attainder'?
an act of parliament declaring someone gulity of a crime againsit the crown without putting them on trial- crown could strip them of there wealth, land and titles- favoured as henry was keen to increase royal bank balence
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What was a Bond?
a written document, binding one person to another instructing that they preform an action or pay someone if the bond is broken- Henry had the majority of the nobility sign one at some point during his reign. he was intent on enforcing them
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What were Recognisances?
a formal acknowledgment of a debt or obligation enforced by a strict financial penalty
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What was a Livery?
Forcing someone to wear a badge of there master , as usually done by servants- it was a sign they were in service
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What was Maintenance?
The practice of bringing unlawful pressure to bear in a court case (usually on juries)
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Why was the council Learned in law created and who headed it?
as a result of the increased collection of bonds and reconnaissances he created it specially to oversee them- Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley (unpopular with the nobles)
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What did Henry cleverly use to control and restrict retainers?
Laws on livery and Maintenace
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Why was this a problem for an usurper king?
it suggested that a possible 'Over-mighty' subject could challenge his authority
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What did he use his 1487 parliament to do??
Restrict unlawful retaining
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How did he increase his control further with his 1504 parliament?
created a licensing system where a list of a lords followers had to be subbmitted for the kings approval
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The number of retainers did decrease, but is it likely the nobility did?
refrained from recording them accurately
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How many times was parliament summoned within Henry's 24 year reign?
7- 5 of these within the first decade and no parliament ever lasted longer than 3 months
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What did Henry use Parliament for?
an institution to support his polices on law and order- to demonstrate there was only one ruler in England which was him
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Why was parliament not called often?
1. did not need war taxes regularly (he persuaded a policy of avoiding expensive campaigns abroad) 2. did not want to strain his subjects by making too many money demands 3. its normal judical function was being fulfilled by other royal courts
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Why did he not feel the need to legislate on a large scale?
government bills usually dealt with Acts of Attainder
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When he did call parliament what did he discuss?
1. Laid down rules on wages and working hours 2. instructed vagabonds to be put in stocks and be returned to there normal place of residence rather than imprisoned 3. forbade corporations making any regulations, unless approved by the king
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What was the kings council?
the kings closet advisors without whom he could not rule effectively- small elite group who met regularly many people were who Henry had spent time in exile with and trusted greatly
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How many members did the kings council have and what did it provide and why?
40- stability lacked by previous goverments because its members were kept in power for a substantial length of time
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Who was lord chancellor, Lord privy seal and Lord treasurer? (chief officers of state)
Lord chancellor= John Morton Lord privy seal= Richard fox Lord treasurer= Lord Dynham
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Who were the minor office holders?
Sir Reginald bray, Lord Daubeny, Sir Thomas Lovell, Edmund Dudley
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What were these men also a part of?
The Great Council- to advise matters such as tax, war, and rebellion
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What did Henry create when his work load became more cumbersome?
Lord President of the council (oversee council in kings absence)
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What were the offshoot comittes?
Court of Requests (designed to deal with legal cases) and Comittee to deal with livery and maintenance (early version of star chamber as they met in room with a star painted ceiling)
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When and what was the Council learned in law?
1495- a small professtional body with the intention of defending the kings rights as feudal landlord
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Why did many people hate it?
association with bonds and recognisances- almost the royal debt collection service and seen as an instrument of extortion
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What did Dudleys promotion to the Council Learned see?
a new level of ruthlessness in which bonds and recognisances were used to threaten the nobility
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By 1509 what had the Council Learned become?
the most important and efficient of all Henry's institutions of goverment
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Why did Henry use JP's to ensure law and order throughout the land?
conscious of making the nobility or the gentry 'Over-mighty'
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How many JP's were there per county and how were the chosen?
18- appointed annually from among the local land owners (not paid but in there own interest to maintain order)
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Why did Henry appoint large and small landowners to oversee local government?
it weakened the power of the larger landowners
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What did the JP's duties include?
1.To arrest and question poachers or hunters in disguise 2. grant bail to those awaiting trial 3. have the ability to replace jury members suspected of being corrupt
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Why was Arch Bishop Morton thankful for Henry's positive relationship with the church?
he had visited Rome prior to Bosworth in order to secure papal support - also led to marriage with Elizabeth
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What did Henry do in 1486 in relation to the privilege of sanctuary?
Deemed only to the king could now grant sanctuary to those who had committed treason
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Why did Henry appoint more Bishop-lawyers(16) than Bishop-theologians (6)?
required them to serve the church and state (state duty was often more important- the case of Bishop Lincoln shows this as he was refused permission to leave the marches)
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When church and state laws were separate what did Henry's legal advisers do and why?
promoted attacks on the church courts because henry did not want the power of the pope to be more significant than his own
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What was Praemunire and what was the punishment?
putting the authority of a foreign power before the king's and it was life in prison and confiscation of property of the crown
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What did Henry implement in the Council of the North?
1. members of the kings council to supervise activities and keep an eye on members (Sir Reginald Bray) 2. Required select members to keep him up to date with regular 'new bulletins' (William Sever)
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Why did Henry personally appoint the members of the council of the North?
so the president could not promote his own family members
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How did Henry control the 'wild' regions of Wales?
1. used his Uncle, Jasper Tudor to oversee operations 2. put trusted welshmen in key postions (rhys ap Thomas South-west- William ap Gruffudd North Wales) 3. continued tradition of of appointing eldest son prince of wales
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Why by 1495 did Henry rule directly and indirectly more of wales than any other previous king?
due to inheritance, death and forfeiture there were few Marcher Lordships that remained in privat hands
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As a result of his support for Warbeck what happened to the Earl of Kildare and his closet supporters?
deprived of his role of lord deputy and his closet supporters were dismissed from office and only once they had sought the kings pardon were some of their titles and offices returned
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Who was appointed Lord deputy in 1491?
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What were Edwards main tasks?
1. Bring peace to Ireland (especially ulster=most rebellious part) 2. Control Irish nobility 3. Discourage support for possible pretenders and yorkists 4. protect Ireland from foreign invaison
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How was Poyning successful?
there were no foreign invaders and the irish were less prepared to support pretenders as they had previously been but nobility never fully submitted
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What did the constitution on Ireland State the king had the right to?
1. Summon and dismiss parliament 2. Approve the adgenda of business, including the right to decide what legislation could and couldn't be discussed 3. Enforce English law automatically in Ireland
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What did Henry appoint his son Henry to?
to the highest position (lord lieutenant) in the same vein as his eldest son in wales
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What did Poynings laws ensure in the short term?
the king had more effective control of ireland destroying the independant legislative power of the irish parliment
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How did the long term expense of Ireland prove to be too costly?
Henry was force to return to his earlier policy of ruling through the nobility- the earl of Kildare was reinstated (Ireland ceased to be a problem for the rest of his reign)
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Why did Henry VIII need to marry Catherine of Aragon?
to cement an anglo-spainsh alliance and secure an heir- used to implement international deals with spain
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When did Henry VIII become king?
29th April 1509
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What were the initial priorities of Henry VIII?
1. to marry COA 2. to pursue and aggressive foreign policy (England displayed as a great European power) 3. Get nobility on side 4. Organize his own court 5. increase his level of power in the regions (particularly Ireland and Wales)
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Why were the nobility unhappy after Henry VII's death?
serve backlash against Henry's ruthless finical polices (council learned)
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What was Henry VIII's parliaments first act and what did it find?
to look into the activities of this unpopular institution- no substantial evidence was found to implicate any wrong doing
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What was Henry advised to do anyway?
to increase hi own popularity by trying to use the Act of Attainder on the men (failed) then hold a series of show trials to uncover their wrong doing (both men imprisoned for a year then executed)
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Why did Henry want to Organize his own court?
to allow him the least amount of personal time taken up with admin but still grant him the greatest power possible
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Who was Wolsey championed by and how did this put him in a stable position?
Richard Fox and he was within the influence of the King's council (a key place for any aspiring adviser)
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How did many consider Wolsey's rise?
that he was in the right place at the right time and he was a 'new blood' compared to many of the other men
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What was the role of the Royal Almoner?
to distribute the kings funds
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What led Wolsey to be appointed to many significant roles?
He was able to raise funds to support Henry's greatly desired war with france
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What significant roles were Wolsey appointed to?
Appointed cardinal (at request of king), Lord Chancellor, papal legate and the archbishop of York and tournai
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How was Wolsey observed by the king?
willing and able to carry out mundane tasks that the king himself did not want to be troubled with
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How did Wolsey skillfully deal with rivals for the kings affections?
he would have them sent on foreign duties thus being out of the kings presence (e.g. Richard pace)
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What else was Wolsey conscious of?
being connected to whose who went agaisit the king- e.g. execution of Buckingham in 1521 (yorkist and outwardly againsit Henry)
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From his appointment as lord chancellor in 1515 what two courts did Wolsey become an active member of?
Court of Chancery and the Court of Star Chamber
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What was the court of Chancery?
an administrative body concerned with the remit of the law
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What was the court of Star chamber?
the kings royal court that could be used to bring subjects to justice
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How was Wolsey successful in bringing about fairness to the justice system?
anyone regaurdless of wealth and social status could bring a case before the star chamber- this meant on average the court was dealing with 120 cases a year compared to only 12 under Henry VII
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Wolsey also seemed to want impartial justice, what did this suggest?
that he greatly enjoyed seeing the poor triumph against the wealthy
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Wolsey was a keen champion of Civil law over common law as he believed it to be more progressive, what was the difference?
Civil= a system with its origins in the roman law - common= a system of laws based in England from long standing doctrines and customs
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How did these methods make him unpopular?
he was known to use them to his own personal gain (sir amyas paulet) and his methods also ruffled the feather of many higher nobles such as the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Burgavenny
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Wolseys reforms did not outlast him, what did this cause after his death?
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What did Wolsey launch in 1517 and what did it lead to?
a national inquiry on the enclosure on land and a court ordering to rebuild destroyed houses and return the land to arable farming
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However, how was this inquiry unsuccessful?
unpopular with aristocracy who continued to enclose anyway and in 1532 in a parliamentary session Wolsey was forced to accept all existing enclosures (demonstrating his influence was not as far reaching as some historians have suggested
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Wolsey wanted to replace the traditional system of fifths and tenths (every town and borough had to pay the same amount) with a more flexible system, to pursue this what did he do?
Commissions were sent out to assess wealth and a graduated system of tax was introduced, establishing a greater tax burden on the wealthy
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The system of fifths and tenths continued to exist but alongside the subsidy how much was Wolsey able to raise between 1513-16?
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Why was it clear this policy caused resentment amongst the ruling classes and what did it cause?
they regularly paid late between 1523-25 which led Wolsey to anticipate and spend tax payer money that the crown did not yet have
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What was the Amicable Grant of 1525?
it was a non-parliamentary grant but designed to target both the clergy and laity (which previous taxes had not yet done)
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Why was the Amicable Grant created?
to gather further revenue for foreign enterprises in France
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How was the Amicable grant received?
met with rebellions in Suffolk and East Anglia- suppressed by the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk (suggesting the nobility were not involved in starting it)- Henry denied all knowledge of it
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Wolsey rose to Eminence under the victories in france in 1513, what did his quick ability to raise forces mean?
An English army 12,000 strong was set to sail to france
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Why was Wolsey keen to maintain a power balance in Europe?
he hoped to become pope himself and so its suggested he conducted the popes interests in english foregien policy
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Some suggest Wolsey's policies were very much opportunistic, what did this do to Henry?
placed Henry in the international limelight, but preferably in a diplomatic light
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What was Wolsey's major triumph in foreign policy?
1518 treaty of London where some 20 European rulers sighed the document, agreeing to perpetual peace between the member states
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Why is Wolsey often thought not to have been a good christian?
it was his life of extravagance that led to the crumbling of the catholic church in England
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Was Wolsey a good bishop to his parishes?
no never visited his sees of Lincoln, bath and wells and Durham also his reasons for going to York were dubious
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What idea did Wolsey initiate in relation to the monasteries?
The idea of commissions to visit the monasteries across England to assess the extent to which monastic duties were being carried out
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What did Wolsey do when the publication came out saying that not all monasteries were fulfilling their duties?
He some abbots replaced and suggested the creation of 13 new episcopal sees (areas which a bishop has authority) based on the dissolution of those under preforming monasteries
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Why did Wolsey dissolve 30 religious houses?
in order to pay for the building of the cardinal collage, oxford and Ipswich school
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Who was Wolsey useful to as papal legate?
both the pope and Henry VIII hoped to benifit financially from the appointment of wolsey as papal legate- however, he did not deliver the expected subsidy to rome
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Why did wolsey prove to be quite useful to Henry as papal legate?
He succeeded in taxing the clergy further than his father had ever managed to do
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How did Wolsey keeping ambitious men away from court affect his relationship with the nobility?
it bred resentment amongst the nobility but during the 1520s there was little backlash as Wolsey's position next to the king was too strong
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The Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk had been anti Wolsey prior to the arrival of Anne, but until her emergeance there was no comp for the kings affections, how did she use her powers of persaution of the king?
to ensure that the privy chamber became more politicised as she saw to it that the Dukes as well as her own brother were promoted to positions of power within the privy council
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What did this rivalry lead to?
it forced wolsey to head up his own faction, bringing the return of old rivals (Richard pace)
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Why did Henry decide to divorce Catherine?
by 1525 it had become clear that Catherine was in no position to produce a heir to secure the tudor dynasty- arrival of anne made her seem less attactive as her looks were fading
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How did Wolsey feel about the divorce and what did he have to do?
it was a major policy to persue and supported the idea despite his limited affection for Anne- as papal legate he was the only man who could put Henry's case forward to the pope
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Catherine also put forward appeals to deny the divorce what teachings did Henry use as his argument?
Leviticus (stated that marriage of a brothers wife was prohibitated= mariiage is nulll and void) and Deuteronomy (it was a mans responsibility to marry his brothers widow)
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How did Wolsey want to use Deuteronomy to argue Henry's case?
If Catherine had not consumated her marriage to arthuer (as she was claiming) therefore the cupole were never really married so it is not Henry's duty to have married her- Henry was against this and thought they should only use Leviticus
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What major event in 1527 caused this task to be almost impossible for Wolsey?
Troops belonging to the holy Roman emperor sacked Rome taking the pope as his political prisoner- so even if the pope had wanted to grant a divorce he was unable to do as he was the hostage of Charles V (Catherine's nephew)
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In Lieu of granting a divorce what did the pope allow to take place, when was it and who did he send over?
a court proceeding, considering the evidence put forward by both parties - 31st march 1529- cardinal capeggio to oversee the preceedings
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What suggestion did Campeggio himself put forward and how did Catherine respond?
That Catherine retire to a nunnery and allow the king to become free to remarry in order to avoid the political and religious caused by the suggestion- she refused leaving divorce the only option
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How did the failure of Wolsey to secure a divorce lead to his downfall?
the whole case had been very high profile and on a European scale. It left Henry embarrassed in Europe and as he saw it Wolsey was responsible for allowing the event to escalate
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Why was it thought Wolsey created his own downfall?
owing to the relentless pursuit of unpopular polices as he was considered to be willing to do whatever was necessary to secure the needs of the king
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What happened to Wolsey following the court case?
he was dissmissed as lord chancellor and charged with praemunrie (papal jurisdiction above's kings jurisdiction illegal) on the 9th October 1525
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What did Wolsey then do and how did it help him?
he voluntarily surrendered himself and his wealth to the kings mercy- restored as the archbishop of York and was allowed to retire to Esher (no archbishop but kept many of his riches)
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What sent Wolsey into downfall again?
he had too ambitious of a comeback (beginning correspondence with french imperial agents)- his enemies took this as an opportunity to persuade the king Wolsey was plotting treason
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What did this cause the king to do and how did Wolsey die?
arrest Wolsey in November 1530 for treason and summon him to the tower of London to face execution- Wolsey died on the long journey at Leicester abbey on the 29th November 1530
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Who for-filled the position of Lord Chancellor and why were they chosen?
Thomas More- a highly intelligent man and already a servant of the king
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What was Thomas More's reputation?
That he put his principles before anything else and that he held strong humanist beliefs which he reveled in a number of books (most famously Utopia)
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What was More's book utopia about?
set on a fictional island called utopia the natives lived in a state of innocence- he used the arrival of visitors to write a bitingly satirical contrast between real 'christian society' and the fictional perfection utopia
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Who was his book aimed at and why?
the landowning elite- More accused them of selfishly exploiting their tenants and allowing sheep to devour men through enclosing land
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Why did More's writings become a favorite of Henry VIII?
he produced a history of the career of Richard III which helped to foster the myth of the yorkist king as an evil and murdering monster
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How were Henry and More different?
More was deeply sympathetic to the plight of C.O.A and grew concerned at Henry treatment of her and at the king's willingness to support those who wanted deep reformation of the church to get his divorce
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What did More believe needed to happen?
like other humanists he remained convinced that reform could be done by steady persuasion rather than dramatic action
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What did More's beliefs cause him to be?
intolerant of opinions that do not match his own and he was instrumental in the harsh persecution of reformers in 1528 and 1530-1
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What was More able to do as Lord Chancellor but what frustrated his work?
attack Lutheran influences within the church and by Anne Boleyn's presence and the messy question of the royal divorce
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Why did More resign?
Henry moved towards a break with the pope and his conscience would not let him support such a move
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What did More also refuse to do?
swear an oath accepting Anne Boleyn's daughter was the legitimate heir whilst Catherine's daughter was completely excluded
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Why did he not want to swear the oath?
he thought it was a tantamount to say that the royal divorce was legal even though the pope had not sanctioned it
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Why was More imprisoned?
Henry could not allow such a powerful critic to voice his opinions so freely
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What then happened to More?
after a trial characterized by false evidence against him he was executed in 1535
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How did More become a hero to some catholic writers?
his courage and bravery was documented in a favorable biography written by his son in law
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Other cards in this set
What did Edward get Richard involved in?
1469- when the Earl of Warwick (kingmaker) betrayed edward by supporting a lancastrian plot to overthrow him- at 17 called to be physically involved in the battle to restore ed to throne
How else did he help Edward to keep the throne?
How did edward reward richards loyalty?
What did Richard become and why was he not considered dangerous to the king?