Tudors II

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Who led the peasants' revolt?
Preacher John Ball. Repudiated by Wycliffe.
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What was De Heretico Comburendo?
A law passed by Henry in 1401 to legalise the burning of heretics (lollards) who translated the Bible. This pushed it underground.
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Who was Oldcastle?
A nobleman and friend of the king's was brought to trial and escaped the Tower of London. Oldcastle's Revolt 1413 failed to depose the king but he was involved in other intrigues until killed in 1417. Thought a threat to social order.
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What happened to lollardy?
Merged into protestantism.
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What was the first act of the reformation parliament?
1529 Act of Attainder against Wolsey.
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What were Wolsey's offences?
Praemunire, sending monies to Rome "to the impoverishment of the realm".
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What was the Release to the King of Money had by way of Loan?
Debts incurred by Henry were cancelled in return for a general pardon.
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What was regulated?
Mortuary and probate fees to protect women, children and others below a certain income. Clerics fined for more than £8. Pluralism prohibited.
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What was passed in 1531?
The Clerical Subsidy (convocation) made Henry the Supreme Head of the Church "in so far as Christ's law allows" after Henry demanded a loan and refused to pay over 5 years or to restore clerical privileges.
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What was the first act of the second sitting that was then passed?
An act concerning a pardon, granted to the King's spiritual subjects of the province of Canterbury for the Praemunire.
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When was the Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates?
1532
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What was the Supplication against the Ordinaries (convocation)? 1532
"poorest sort" brought before Bishops. Fees in church courts too high, some clergymen accused of nepotism.
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What did this allow?
The Submission of the Clergy 1532
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What was the first act of 1533?
Act in Restraint of Appeals
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When was the Act for the Submission of the Clergy?
1533
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What was the Act of Succession 1534?
Annulled marriage. All nobles in the land swore an oath.
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What was the Act in Restraint of Annates?
Pope could not appoint Bishops or receive First Fruits.
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What was the first act of 1534?
Act of Supremacy.
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What did the Treason Act of 1535 mean?
Property could be confiscated for repeating rumours.
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Give a quote from the Submission of the Clergy.
"committed to the examination and judgement of your grace" 1532.
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How did Suzanne Lipscomb describe Henry?
"A man of strong feeling but little emotional intelligence" "ulcer" "obesity"
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What did Lipscomb describe in '1536: The Year that Changed Henry VIII'?
"depression" "self-justification and aggression" "increasingly repressive and brutal"
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Was '1536: The Year that Changed Henry VIII'?
Commissioned portrait by Hans Holbein powerful "domineering stance". Betrayal of Anne. Dissolution, P of G. Did not rejoin with Rome. Ulcer, obesity. Forced Anne to sign in support and bastardise herself. Ten Articles.
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What were Henry's strengths in 1536?
Act of Supremacy. Seen as most powerful in parliament. Challenge illegal. Plans for dissolution and expansion. Order for Preachers attempted to suppress controversy.
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What were some weaknesses?
Financial situation, no heir. Brain damage? Leg injury?
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What were some opportunities?
execution of Anne. Tyndale Bible.
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What were some threats?
Charles V. Protestants/evangelicals. Revolts. Power of Cromwell. All Churches had to have an English Bible open to criticism.
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What did Borman say about Cromwell?
The appointment of Cromwell as vicegerent would "set in motion a revolution that would shake England to its core"
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What was the role of the monasteries?
employers. cared for disabled. travel breaks, place for worship/confession, hospital, school for landowners' sons, rented land, spread news, near to God, collected taxes nd tithes inc probate nd mortuary fees particularly friaries Made beer and bread
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How many houses did the Valor Ecclesiasticus record initially for accurate tax?
800
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What did Cromwell do first?
Suspended authority of Bishops in 1535 so 6 canon lawyers he appointed could do their work.
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Who were hated?
Lee and Rice
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What did one monk write to Cromwell?
"as drunk as mice and played some at cards, some at dice"
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When was the Suppression of the Lesser Monasteries?
1536 final session of RP close 376 w gross income less than £200.
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What was the Court of Augmentations?
Power to collect lands, property and goods of the suppressed abbeys, and to dispose of them to bring max profit to crown. Largely staffed by friends and relations of Cromwell. Reports e.g how many lose/ allowed tokeep jobs. No motive, more favourable
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What were some changes for Henry in 1536?
Katherine died. Anne had given birth to Elizabeth and a stillborn. 1536 miscarriage w deformity. Arrested 6th may. Unconscious 2 hours jousting. Second Act of Succession mary and eliza illegit. Crom executed 1540.
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What were some changes in government and parliament in 1536/ how did the RP change the system?
Before 1529 bills were introduced by MPs usually around local issues. After, bills were introduced by the privy council and key ministers (Crom). More important due to legislation leading to break w Rome. King powerful "in parliament".
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Cont.
Statute law (made in parliament and given King's assent) seen as most powerful. Parliament highest court of law, challenge to succession punishable by law. Cromwell was an evangelical but kept demands of protestants in check.
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How did Cromwell use his position?
Vicegerent, to reinforce power of king.
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What did he do?
issues the injunctions. Every parish needed english bible. Laity understood scripture underpinning break w Rome making Henry powerful.
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Who was Henry influenced by?
Advisors, foreign policy and domestic affairs. Ultimately power w Henry.
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What else happened 1536?
Valor Ecclesiasticus.
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What were some doctrinal changes?
Supreme Head of the Church felt responsibility to reform doctrine, liturgy and ceremonial practises. Seven sacraments important. sola fide. Tyndale's translation no mention of purgatory and translated greek term as love not charity.
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Cont
1534 Crom given power over admin as Vicegerent in Matters Ecclesiastical. Steered away from Catholicism. Encouraged to read bible. Order for Preachers stopped them discussing controversial ideas (evangelical) in sermons rather than word of God.
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How did the organisation of the church change?
Evangelicals questioned power of priesthood and doctrine of justification (good works mean heaven). Clerical structure (parishes and diocese remained). Crom planned to use money for expansion.
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What was the effect on buildings/language/heritage (cultural effects) of the dissolution of the monasteries.
Fountains abbey is now a world heritage site. Kirkstall abbey is used for agriculture. Thetford priory abbey is the burial place of earls and dukes of Norfolk for 400 yrs. Henry buried Reading abbey. Newstead abbey museum. Tourism.
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What were social effects on poor, sick, travellers and education?
Fountains abbey helped famine 1194. Kirkstall abbey kept sheep for wool industry. Malmesbury abbey buildings filled w looms for cloth weaving enterprise. New inn, Gloucester. AbbeyofStAgatha was attached to a hospital.Priories accommodate travellers.
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What was the effect on gentry, large landowners and society? Sons of gentry could afford land.
Fountains abbey, new owner planned to convert mansion. St Marys Chapel Glasto believed to be burial ground of King Arthur. Furness Abbey land given to Crom. Malmesbury abbey given to rich merchant. Newstead Abbey Sir Byron converted priory into house
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What was the effect on churches, cathedrals and monks?
Fountains abbey furnaces built in churches to melt lead from the roof and pipes. Monks received pensions. New Bayham Abbey ruins landscaped. St Marys Chapel Glasto, Abbots and 2 monks executed for treason.
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cont
Furness abbey voluntarily surrendered in fear for supporting PofG. Malmesbury abbey church given to town for continuing use as parish.Birkenhead priory chapter house chapel survived as place of worship. 6 new cathedrals.
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What did catholic historians believe?
Lead to increased unemployment, poverty and intimately the creation of the Elizabethan. Poor Law.
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What do contemporary historians argue?
exacerbated problems did not create.
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How many daily services?
8
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How many landed?
50%
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How many heads of houses sat in House of Lords?
30
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What did monasteries act as?
front for local justice, provided charity, healthcare and ed.
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What did Robert Aske's lawyer say?
"spiritual refuge...also the abbey was one of the beauties of the realm".
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Why are accounts unreliable?
sporadic and biased surviving records of visitations by bishops.
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What did the abbot of witby do?
worked in league w french pirates.
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Give a quote from the 1536 suppression
"manifest sin... abominable living"
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What does Foster think of this?
"if they were really guilty of anything, it was complacency"
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When was the Supplication for the Beggars?
1528
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When was the tax payers revolt?
1525
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How was Henry "self defeating" according to Foster?
The dissolving the monasteries increased threat from Europe.
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Who objected?
Franciscans and Carthusians.
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What did Henry tell Chapuy 1533?
"reunite to the crown the goods which churchmen held from it"
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When was the Act of First Fruits and Tenths?
1534. effectively 10% income tax determined by valour ecclesiasticus.
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How much?
£200,000 pa.
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How was this obscured?
Sometimes written as less than 12 people. deliberately unclear, generous pensions. perhaps genuine.
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Give two commissioners.
Layton and Lee
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What happened at Roche Abbey?
signed surrender deed. commissioners made exhaustive inventory of possessions and livestock claimed as Crown property. Members of community got 'reward'. Bells, relics and doorknobs melted down. Community looted for furniture, bricks and some books.
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What were political reasons?
need to break from Rome. Abbots vocal wanting to stay in House of Lords.
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What were financial reasons?
for war and establish patronage to reward loyalty. Dissolution made £10 million a year. Sold precious metals/melt for money. Sold land and some got enough land for parliament. Cromwell monastic wealth. debases coinage mix w alloys.
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What were religious reasons?
Commissioners found greedy, lazy, self indulgent and morally corrupt. Conflicting evidence at glasto.
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Why did Edward Hall say abbots support it?
"in the hope that their great monasteries should have continued still"
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What was the effect of the P of G?
reputation of monks damaged. rebels refunded 15 monasteries.
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Why did a Catholic crusade against England look likely?
Spain and France declared peace at Nice
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What did Latimer write?
"The founding of monasteries argued purgatory to be, so the putting of them down argueth it not to be" Were not inspected individually.
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Why did it not provoke coordinated resistance?
one by one. surrenders purported to be voluntary. no act. bribed w pensions. Cromwell ensured his nominees well elected to vacant headships.
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What suggests this was always H's plan?
Court of Augmentations
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What did the 1536 dissolutions do?
"The 1536 dissolutions also whetted previously unrecognised appetites among the gentry and others for land"
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What was Fountains?
Largest and richest Cistercian abbey in the country. Prominent role in export of wool. World Heritage Site. Water mill. Guest complex. Focus of archaeological and architectural research.
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How do we know about Kirkstall Abbey?
has a number of documentary sources including charters and a chronicle of the house as well as an array of artefacts such as seals, pottery and metalwork.
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Why Layton unreliable?
wanted to rise in Cromwell's service. found much sexual misconduct. Monks and nuns sent to larger monasteries.
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What were causes of the lincolnshire uprising?
mostly economic high taxes. small harvest and wheat prices up 80% executions of fish, anne and more caused discontent. dissolution of lesser monasteries feared for parish churches e.g Leath expensive spire assessed for taxes.
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What were enclosures?
making common land into fields for sheep farming taken over from small crop farmers for sheep.
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When was lincolnshire uprising?
June 1535
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Who was the leader?
Nicholas Melton
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Who did it involve?
gentry (eg Aske), priests and monks.
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What did they want?
end to peace-time taxation, subsidy act and statute of uses. Mary legit and monasteries back, end to Crom and Cramner.
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Who was Lord Hussey?
Aragonese w power in court. knew mary as a child, wanted legit. Wife had been mary's lady in waiting.
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Who led army?
Duke of Suffolk. offered pardon. some inc Aske go to Yorkshire.
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What caused Yorkshire uprising?
religious. north felt unrepresented in parliament. mps not paid, couldn't leave farms. too poor. monasteries important.
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How did it escalate under aske?
9000 to 30,000. swore oath of allegiance. restored some monasteries supported by nobility and gentry w voice in court.
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What did the York Articles demand?
campaigned against enclosure and rents up as well as food up. Against statute of uses. against imposed tax on wills, against crom and cran.return to tradit religion. "ends to tax on sheep and cattle". Powers in church "have not the faith in christ
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Who was Lord Darcey?
Supposed to defend Pontefract castle 'key to the north'. anticlerical, worked against mortuary fees in RP.
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What did the Doncaster Petition ask?
no tax on cattle and sheep, statute of uses, no crom/cran, restore monasteries. Norfolk took to the king
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Why did Hery want clarification?
implicate selves in treason, buy time to raise army or make peasants worry about having left land.
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How did they anger H?
More radical Pontefract Articles. Pope=head, mary=princess, parliament in north, X crom, X dissolution, X statute of uses, X treason act.
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What did Norfolk agree?
no more monasteries dissolved wo parliament in north.
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who led the Cumberland uprising?
protestant evangelical sir francis Bigod. failed
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How was this different?
uprising of the working people w nobles desperate. no negotiating power. Killed 178.
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What were Cromwell's religious aims?
Crom and cran aimed to introduce religious ideas inspired by Luther. Sought publication of the Bible in English and sought to undermine belief in salvation by good works. Personally invests £4000 for churches to have eng bibles.
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What were the Ten Articles? 1526
An attempt to provide C of E w identifiable set of beliefs, not attack on catholicism. Meant to be recognisable but distinct from Rome. Could be reformist as didn't mention 7 sacraments.
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What was the Act of the Six Articles?
1535 reaffirmed Henry's catholicism through importance of mass and sacraments. damaged crom and cran.
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What did Crom's injunctions do?
strengthened large fines.
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What was the bible in 1535?
based on Tyndale.
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What was the Great Bible?
1537 after injunctions. also called crom's bible.
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What was the cover?
Henry at top, handing bible to Bishops although actually crom/crans idea.
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What were the sacraments?
baptism, confirmation, marriage, confession, mass, ordination and last rites.
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What is real presence?
body and blood present in transubstantiation.
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How was religion?
Services still centred on Eucharist and services in Latin using original Latin Missal. No sermons (protestant). Still 7 sacraments and transubstantiation as well as communal participation in liturgy.
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Why did John Lambert die 1538?
denied real presence.
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Who was conservative at court?
Duke of Norfolk, Gardiner, Wriothesley, The Earl of Surrey.
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Who was reformist?
Cranmer, Katherine Parr, Edward Seymour, Sir William Paget and Dudley.
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How much did Cromwell invest of his own money?
£4000
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What was the Ten Articles 1536?
An attempt to provide the c of e w identifiable set of beliefs. recognisable but distinctive. didn't name all 7 sacraments.
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What was the Act of Six Articles 1539?
Emphasised 7 sacraments and importance of mass. Many, including Latimer, resigned.
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Who disapproved of the Coverdale Bible 1535, largely based on the Tyndale Bible?
Gardiner
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When were Cromwell's injunctions requiring an English Bible for every parish?
1536
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When were churches fined for not owning one?
1538
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When was the Great Bible also called Cromwell's Bible?
1538.
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How was the Church?
services still centred on the Eucharist. Still in Latin. Original Latin Mussal used. Sermons still not a part of the Catholic Church (key aspect of Protestant theology). Transub, 7 sacraments, communal participation in the litany.
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How did Henry describe transubstantiation?
"the author of truth, that truth I will defend"
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Give a quote from the injunctions?
"one book of the whole Bible of the largest volume".
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How did Cranmer describe it?
"holy relic...not for frivolous debate"
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What is convocation?
Church equivalent of parliament.
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What do the the three creeds refer to?
The nature of Jesus Christ
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What were the ten articles?
Catholic to avoid heresy but only 3 sacraments of penance, baptism and the eucharist.
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What was an ambiguity?
No objects of worship, intercession of saints (cannot answer prayers).
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What was also forbidden?
chantries/papal pardon and clerical marriage. Many rituals. Chastity under law before marriage.
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Give another quote?
"none of these ceremonies have the power to remit sin" inc "giving of ashes on Ash Wednesday, bearing of palms on Palm Sunday.
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What was not mentioned in the Ten Articles?
transub
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When was the Bishops' Books?
1537.
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Why Henry revoked 2 yrs later?
Lutherian, sola fide.
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What does communion in one kind?
congregation only gets bread
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What did the Ten articles state was necessary for salvation?
private confession.
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Who did Bernard Williams argue was soley responsible for changes?
Henry, because 3 lutherians and 3 catholics were executed on the same day in 1540.
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When was the Bishops Book?
1537
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Who called for it to determine canon law?
Cromwell.
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What did it emphasise?
salvation by faith, no mention of transub.
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What demonstrated Henry's understanding of theology and determination to control the direction of religion in England?
published critique of theology.
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When were the 6 articles?
1539
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What did they do?
Passed into law the key beliefs of the Church.
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What showed Henry how far doctrinal deviation in the laity had gone?
Lambert case.
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Give context.
Henry excommunicated 1539 and Pope had issued a call to Charles V and Francis I to launch a crusade to return England to Catholicism.
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What did the Six Articles uphold?
transub, communion in one kind, private mass, auricular confession as "expedient and necessary". vows of chastity binding under divine law.
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Who produced the King's Book 1543?
Parliament commissioned conservative bishops and theologians to replace Bishop's book.
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When married Katherine Parr?
1543
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How was she educated?
Humanist w Mary partic Erasmus.
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Who was mother?
lady in w to K of A.
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How did she influence ed of Ed?
Changed tutors while Henry was at war w France.
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What was significant?
One of the first women to have work published in Eng. Wrote 2 books encouraged Eliza and Mary.
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Why did conservatives dislike her?
Had power as Henry was obese, depressed, leg.
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When accused of Heresy?
1546. begged for her life.
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Who was Anne Askew?
"I said I would rather die than break my faith". possible connection to Catherine Parr. Only woman officially tortured 1546. illegal.
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Who were Wriothesley and Richard Rich?
Lord Chancellor and Chief Commissioner at Head of Court of Augmentations.
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Why had she previously been arrested?
denying real presence.
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What did she tell the preacher at her execution?
"he misseth and speaketh without the book"
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How did Foxe describe her?
"good woman" "a singular example of Christian constancy for all men to follow"
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How did Plowden describe her?
A truculent and argumentative young woman. close connections with the Court.
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What family did she come from?
Lincolnshire.
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What did Wilkinson write about Katherine Howard?
"restored him to the youth and vitality"
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Who did Katherine Howard sleep with?
Culpepper
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What was the result?
Act of Attainder
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What did Henry say?
not of "pure and honest condition"
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Who wrote to tell the King?
Cranmer
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Who defended Katherine?
Lady Rochester
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What was a short term impact of the dissolutions?
Increased destitution problem throughout reign of Ed.
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What was a long term social impact?
Shift from dominant church to supreme state. Developed local government responsible for poor.
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What were long term cultural impacts?
developed secular culture. Grammar schools.
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What were short term impacts on the church?
dislocation of religious provision. increase in number of priests.
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What were long term impacts on the church?
creation of new bishoprics. replacement of political role of abbots by new bishops.
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What were short term political impacts?
abbots removed from house of lords. defense against France.
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What were long term political impacts?
enabled henry to assert his authority on England in terms of political control at the centre and in the localities.
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What were short term religious impacts?
Organisation 8000 priests well versed in liturgy and doctrine addressed issue of uneducated clergy. 6 new bishoprics many using modified abbeys.
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Long term religious impacts?
Represented final break.
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What is debated?
extend of vagrancy caused.
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Social and economic consequences long term?
more power as sold rights to use property. rented to nobility and gentry. scale of transfer of property allowed lawyers and merchants to be established within landed classes. cultural loss of monastic libraries. 6/600 survived Worcester library.
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Cont.
Anglo-saxon manuscripts. some burned as buildings ransacked.silver, gold, jewels sold or given away at Court of Augmentations. new grammar schools e.g Christchurch founded by Wols. small compared w wealth. may have been reflection import of lit/print
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When was Statute of Wills right to ownership?
1540
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Short term financial impacts?
4 new departments of finance established by cromwell 1535-1540. Court of Augmentations, Court of First Fruits and Tenths, court of general surveyors (land), court of wards and liveries created as part of financial admin 1542. Crown more control.
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Long term financial impacts?
Court of First fruits and tenths 1540 collected money from churches that would have gone to Rome. Court of Wards and Liveries 1332 collected rights associated w marriage/wards.
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Who were reformist?
cranmer, cromwell, catherine parr, seymours.
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who were conservative?
duke of norfolk, earl of surrey, bishop gardener, thomas wriothesley.
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When did the Cleves marriage fail and marry Howard bringing down Cromwell?
1540.
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When was Howard executed?
1542
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What was the result?
Norfolk and his associated left in disgrace.
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What did Michael Sherbrook say about Roche Abbey?
Nothing was spared
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Who did they educate?
Anyone who could spare the labour inc women. languages greek and latin. social mobility womens alt to marriage.
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What did Henry use money for?
Set up Christchurch
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What filled vacuum left by monasteries?
protestantism
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Why may people not have believed?
God did not save them. "abominable living" "manifest sin"
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What else did H do to build forts against french?
debase coinage
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What did Henry have to do to pass dissolution of smaller monasteries?
visit house of commons.
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What was destroyed
anglo-saxon manuscripts
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Fountains
largest and richest cistercian abbey in country. prominent role in export of wool, water mill, guest complex. Now a world heritage sight. focus of archeological and agricultural research.
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How many exempted?
67
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When was act of ten articles?
1536
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When were six articles?
1539
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Anne of Cleves
Germany not under papal control might protect. "not as faith as she hath been reported" disliked german dress, speech and size. Painted in profile to disguise nose.
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Why else did Cromwell fall?
allowed heresy to go unpunished in calais caused problems for Lord Lisle. Act of Attained killed 1540.
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What was De Heretico Comburendo?

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A law passed by Henry in 1401 to legalise the burning of heretics (lollards) who translated the Bible. This pushed it underground.

Card 3

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Who was Oldcastle?

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Card 4

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What happened to lollardy?

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Card 5

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What was the first act of the reformation parliament?

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