Tsarist and Communist Russia 7A- Nicholas II unrest

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What was Nicholas II rearded by his father as?
'A dunce' and a 'weakling'.
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What had Nichola II been brought up to do?
Take his duties as a ruler seriously. Belived that any signs of weakness would be failure on his part.
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Who was his tutor?
Pobedonestov. No doubt his attitudes had been instilled by him.
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What did he resolve to do as Tsar?
'To maintain the principle of autocracy just as firmly and unflichingly as it was preserved by my unforgettable dead father'.
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What did his commitment to what ensure?
His commitment to orthodoxy ensured that the Church maintained it's poweful influence.
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What else did he do that made him no more popular than this father had been?
Continued Russification and support for the 'Black Hundreds' organisation.
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What were the Black Hundreds?
Nationalist gangs, devoted to 'Tsar, Church and Motherland'. Right-wing and anti-Semitic ideals.
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Why didn't Nicholas' reign begin well?
In May 1896, crowds gathered at Khodynka Field outside Moscow to celebrate the coronation. But, around 1400 men, women and children were trampled to death and others were badly injured, in the hope of seeing the new Tsar.
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What were the years oafter 1894 famous for?
Serious unrest in Russia.
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Although strikes weren't new, waht had Russian society become?
More politicised in the years after the Great famine of 91/2.
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What had the failure of the government to cope with the crisis, and leave the zemstva and voluntary organisations to deal with, done to people's feelings?
Left them scorned and in dispair. Therefore, greater public mistrust of the government, but a firm belief in the power of ordinary people.
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As a result, what happened to reformist groups?
Had a broader support base than ever before by 1900.
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Where were the new outbursts of trouble in Russia?
In the universities.
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What were these met by?
Increased use of the Okrana. Ensured that young people were expelled, exiled or drafted into the army if involved with rebellious activities.
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Give an example of this.
1901- Cossacks charged into a crowd of students in St.Petersburg. Killed 13. Aftermath- 1500 students were imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
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Wat were the years 1902-1907 marked by?
Widespread disturbances in both towns and countryside.
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Due to the high amounts of arson used in rural communities, what were the years nicknamed?
'the years of the Red Cockerel'.
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Where was unrest at it's worst?
In the central Russian provinces. But also spread to Georgia, the Ukraine and Poland.
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What did the peasants do here?
Set fire to landlords' barns, destroying grain. Vented anger by seizing woodland or pastures. even physically attacking landlords and officials.
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How did the Tsar's minister, Pyotr Stolypin deal with the disturbances?
Ferocity that agrevated the sitaution further. Peasants were flogged, arrested and exiled, or shot in their thousands.
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What did the gallows become known as, due to their repeated use?
'Stolypin's necktie'.
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How many industrial strikes were there in the towns?
1894- 17,000. 1904- 90,000.
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Give a specific example of an industrial clash.
1901- the Obukhov factory in St. Petersburg saw clashes with armed police and Cossacks.
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What did the Moscow chief of the Okrana do in 1900 to try and control the increasing illegal unions?
Zubatov began organising his own police-sponsered trade unions
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What was the idea behind this?
To provide 'official' channels through wich complaints could be heard, to try and stop workers from joining radical socialists.
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Wh did this end?
1903- Zubatov dismissed and exiled after one of the unions became involved in a General Strike in Odessa.
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What was another union that was approved?
1904- The Assembly of St Petersburg Factory Workers, by Father Gapon. Approvedby internal affairs minister, Plehve. Had the support of the Orthodox Church. 12 branches, 8000 members.
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Card 2

Front

What had Nichola II been brought up to do?

Back

Take his duties as a ruler seriously. Belived that any signs of weakness would be failure on his part.

Card 3

Front

Who was his tutor?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did he resolve to do as Tsar?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did his commitment to what ensure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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