Tsarist and Communist Russia 3- The autocracy of Alexander II and Alexander III.

Why did Russian society begin to feel optimistic?
Various reforms had begun which promised to transform Russian state.
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Why didn't this optimism last?
1866, an attempted assassination attempt shook the Emperor's confidence.
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What happened as a result of the attempted assassination attempt?
A more repressive policy was introduced. His reign became more reactionary after this.
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Who took part in the assassination attempt in April 1866?
A former student of nobile status, Dmitry Karakozov shot at Alexander but mised.
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Who was involved in the assasssination attempt the following year?
A Polish immigrant Antoni Berezowski fired at a carriage carrying Alexander an his two sons, but hit a horse and a cavalryman instead.
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The assassination attempt in December 1879, what happened?
A bomb intended to blow up the Tsar on a railway journey was planted under the wrong train.
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February 1880, what happned in this assassination attempt?
A mine was postioned below the dining room of the Winter Palace. 12 were killed and 50 were injured. Tsar survived as he was late for dinner.
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After his son died, who did Alexander II seek consolation from?
Yekaterina (Catherine) Mikhailovna Dolgorukova.
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What did this do to his relationships with his family?
It distanced himsself aaway from his brother Grand Duke Konstantin and the Grand Duchess Elena.
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What did this, and the assassiantion attempts do for the Tsar?
Made him more aloof, and became less inclined to resist the reactionary conservatives who believed the tsar had goen too far reforming policies.
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What did the reactionaries fear?
Feared the spread of 'western' ideas through the liberal universities and freer press. Argued that ethnic minorities were diluting Russian strength.
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Who did Alexander employ after being persuaded in 1866?
He appointed more conservative minsiters to replace the liberal ones.
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Who became in charge of education?
Dmitri Tolstoy
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Who became the Head of the Third Section?
Pyotr Shuvalov
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Who became the minsiter of Justice?
Konstantin Pahlen.
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What did Dmitri Tolstoy believe about education?
Staunch orthodox believer, felt a tight control over education was essential to eradicate western liberla ideas and criticism over the autocracy.
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What happened to the zemstva's power over education?
They were reduced, and the Church regained it's authority over rural schools.
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What did the higher gimnazii schools have to follow?
A tradtional classical curriculum and abandon teaching natural sciences.
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What changed about enrolment to univeristies?
From 1871, only students attending gimnazii schools could attend university.
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What happened to the courses in university?
More liberal courses were replaced by a traditonal curriculum.
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What were the subjects that were encouraged?
Maths, Latin, Greek and Divinity.
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Which subjects were forced out?
Those which encouraged critical thought, like Literature, Science, Modern Langauges and History.
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How was censorship changed?
Censorship was tightened and student activities and organisations were strictly controlled.
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How did Pyotr Shuvalov change the police?
He strenghtened the police and encouraged the Third Section.
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How did the persecution of ethnic minorities change?
It was increased.
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How did Konstantin Pahlen change the judiciary system?
Made sure that those accussed of political agitation were made an example of.
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How were searches and arrests changed?
They were increased
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1879, governor-generals were introduced. What could they do?
Had emergency powers to prosecute in military courts and exile politcal offenders.
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What did Pahlen hold?
Open 'show trials', with the intent of deterring others from revolutionary activity.
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This backfired. How did show trials change?
In 1878, political crimes were transferred from the civil courts to the special secret courts.
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What happened at show trial 193 during 1877-8?
A sympathetic jury acquitted 153 of the 193 defendants and only gave light sentences of the rest.
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How was Russia in political crisis in the late 1870's?
Russian army was bogged down by the Russo-Turkish War, famine swept the countryside and an industrial recession began?
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With the unrest, what did Alexander decide to do?
Led him to accept that the violence might be curbed by a widening democratic consultation.
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Who was Count Mikhail Loris-Melikov?
Appointed Minister of Internal Affairs.
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What did he do as this minister?
Released politcal prisoners, relaxed censorhip, removed the salt-tax and lifted the restrictions on the activities of the zemstva.
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What happened to the Third Section?
It was abolished, and it's powers were trasnferred to the regular police force.
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What was created alongside this?
The Okrana.
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What did Loris-Melikov produce in 1880?
A report in reponse to the zemstva demands.
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What did it recommend?
The inclusion of elected representatives of the nobility, of the zemstva and of the town governments in debating some of the state decrees.
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What did the report became known as?
'The Loris-Melikov Constitution'.
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How did Alexander react?
He accepted and signed the report on the morning of the 13th March 1881.
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What happened the same day?
Alexander II was killed by a bomb, on his way to discuss the document
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Where was the Tsar going?
He was heading towards the Winter Palace.
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Who committed the assassination?
The People's Will.
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Who was Alexander III tutored by?
Konstantin Pobedonestov
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How was Alexander III brought up?
WIth a very strong sense of commitment, and believed that, with God's guidance, he could decide what was right for his country.
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What did he begin his reign by doing?
Ordered a public hanging of the people involved with the assassination of Alexander II.
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What was the manfiesto called?
Manifesto of Unshakeable Autocracy 1881.
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What did he issue alongisde this?
Law on Exceptional Measures, which declared that, if neccesary, a Commander in chief could be appointed to take contorl of the locality, using military courts and powers of imprisonment.
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What happened to the Loris-Melikov Constitutions?
They were abandoned, with reforming ministers such as Dmitri Milyutin resigning.
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What type of ministers did Alexander III heavily rely upon?
Conservatives.
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Who did Nikolai Ignatiev replace as internal minsiter in 1882?
Dmitri Tolstoy.
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What did Ivan Delyanov become?
Minister of Education.
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What was introduced in the changes to the local government?
Lan captains in July 1889, with the power to override elections to the zemstvo and village assemblies and to disregard zemstvo decisions.
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What were the Land captains made resposible for?
Law enforcement and government in the countryside and could ignore the normal judiciary process, overturning court judgements.
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What did a further act in 1890 do for local government?
Changed election arrangements for the zemstva, reducing the peasant's vote, and placed the zemstva under central government control.
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What did this channel?
Efforts away from political discussion to social services e.g. education, health, local transport.
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What did June 1982 bring?
A similar arrangement for the towns. Electorate was reduced to the owners of property above a certain value.
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Who led the Department of the Police and Okrana?
Vyacheslav Von Plehve from 1881 to 1884, and by Pyotr Durnovo in 1884.
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How did the police change?
Number of police increased, and new branches of criminal investigation set up.
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What was there a drive to recruit?
Spies, counter-spies, and 'agent provactors', who would pose as revolutionaries in order to incriminate others.
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Where did the Okrana have offices?
St Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw.
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What things did the Okrana do?
Intercepted and read mail, checked up on activities in the factories, univeristies and the army and the State.
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What did the 1882 Statute on Police Surveillance mean?
An area of the empire could be deemed an 'area of subversion', police agenst could search, arrest, detain, imprison and exile. Not onlt hose who committed the crime but those who would be likely to commit them or knew about them.
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How did this change peoples' lives?
Police had vast power over them, as they could be arrested with no right to legal representation.
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How did the judicirary reforms under Alexander II change under Alexander III?
Practically reversed.
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What did the decree of 1885 provide the Minister of Justice with?
To exercise greater control, e.g. the dissmissal of judges.
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What was the ministry granted powers to do in 1887?
Hold closed court sessions.
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What are closed court sessions?
A trial held in secret to whcih no observers would be permitted, and no reporting allowed.
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What could ministers do in 1889?
Responsible for the appointmnt of town judges.
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Under which control were the volost courts placed in 1889?
Under the land captains in the countryside and judges in the town.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why didn't this optimism last?

Back

1866, an attempted assassination attempt shook the Emperor's confidence.

Card 3

Front

What happened as a result of the attempted assassination attempt?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who took part in the assassination attempt in April 1866?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who was involved in the assasssination attempt the following year?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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