Tsarist and Communist Russia 1,The Russian Autocracy in 1855

In 1855, what type of empire was Russia?
an Autocratic empire.
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Who was at the top of the Empire?
The Tsar.
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How big was the Russian empire at this time?
21 million sq kilometres. Twice the size of Europe.
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The Tsar was also the head of what?
The Orthodox Church.
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The Russian people were taught what about the Tsar?
To show devotion to the tsar and accept the Earth as a will of God.
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What was an edict?
An official order issued by a person or authority.
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Who chose the edicts?
All chosen by the Tsar. Did have advisors and ministers though. But couldn't do anything without the Tsars permission.
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What were the Tsar's main advisory body ?
Imperial Council. Body of 35 to 60 nobles picked by the Tsar to advie him personally and provide an expert opinion.
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The Council of Ministers was what?
Another advisory body. Body of 8 to 14 ministers in charge of different departments.
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How big was the Tsar's army?
World's largest army of 1.5 million conscripted serfs, serving around 25 years.
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How much annual spending went towards the army and navy?
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Another service of elite regiments were called?
Cossacks. Came from Ukraine and Southern Russia. Horseback, Loyal to the Tsar.
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To maintain autocracy, the country developed what?
A police state.
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What did this police state prevent?
Freedom of speech, freedom of press and travel abroad. Censorship at every part of government. Political meetings and strikes were forbidden.
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What was the Third Section?
Ran the Secret State Council network.
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what countries were well ahead of Russia economically in 1855?
Britain, Belguim, France and German states.
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But what was Russian economy based on?
Mostly rural and agricultural production.
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What were the reaosn behind Russia's backwardness?
Much of the empire was inhospitable. As a result, placed severe strains on the economy.
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Why else couldnt Russia moved forward with the economy?
It was a serf-based economy, meaning that all the aristocracy was reliant upon the serfs.
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What was the serfs problem?
They often suffered from starvation in the winter, especially during the years of bad harvest. also, wihtin the mirs (serf communes), it meant that individual serf families worked scattered strips.
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Who were the serfs?
Men, women and children who were classified as property by their owners, rather than citizens of the state. They could be bought and sold, and were subject to beatings on a regular basis. They were also liable to conscription to the army.
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What was Russian society dividied into?
Between the priveledged land owning elite and the serf majority.
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What did the land-owning elite consist of?
Clergy, nobility, civil and military officials, army and naval officers, and at the very top, the royal court.
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What was there an absense of 19th century Russia?
A middle classs. They were becoming increasingly dominant elsewhere in Europe.
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When was the Crimean War?
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What did Tsar Nicholas I do in the 1820's?
Seized the opportunity to increase Russian influence in the area by posing as the Protector of the Slavs and Christians.
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How was the war from both sides?
Both sides were incompetant, and the death toll was made worse by an outbreak of chloera.
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How did Russia suffer?
Outdated technology, poor transport and inadequate leadership. Russian army lacked flexibiltiy and determination.
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When were the Russian's defeated?
Defeated at Balaclva in October 1854 and at the Inkerman in Novemeber 1854.
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What did the failure of the Crimean War do for Russia?
Gave it a wake-up call, that it needed to change.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who was at the top of the Empire?


The Tsar.

Card 3


How big was the Russian empire at this time?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


The Tsar was also the head of what?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


The Russian people were taught what about the Tsar?


Preview of the front of card 5
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