Tsarist and Communist Russia 11- Political authority, opposition and Russia in wartime.

What happened when Russia decided to go to war?
Strike activity ceased, extremists imprisoned for lack of patriotism.
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What happened to the Duma?
It dissolved itself. Didn't want to burden the country with 'uneccesary politics' during war time.
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What did St Petersburg get renamed to?
Petrograd.
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What was assmebled quickly?
A vast army, Germans surprised at the speed which the Russian 'steamroller' was able to get to the Eastern front.
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But why was the spirit of national solidarity dampened?
Initial victories turned to defeat at the hands of the Germans. Aug 1914- Battle of Tanneburg in East Prussia, left 300,000 dead.
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Where was the subsequent defeat?
Sept 14- Masurian Lakes. Forced Russian army into temporary retreat.
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What did these highlight?
The war would not be ending quickly as had hoped. Reports of military incompetance inflamed the discontent.
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Why was there dispute over organisation of the war effort?
July 14- govt had set up 'military zones' within that all civilian authority was suspended. Military assumed command.
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Who opposed this?
the liberal zemstva- regarded the govt as insensitive to the needs of the people. Civilians had a big part to play in the war.
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Example of something govt did that caused resentment.
1914- decided to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Vodka seen as essential, especially in hard times. Peasants and workers distilled their own
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What did the zemstva establish?
a 'Union of Zemstva'. Provided medical faciltiies which the state neglected.
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What did another intiative come from?
Factory owners and businessmen. Established the 'Congress of Representatives of Industry and Business'. Helped to coordinate production.
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June 1915- what did existing zemstva and muncipal dumas form?
Zemgor. Chaired by Prince Lvov. Claimed the right to help the Tsar's govt in war effort. Never allowed to take direct influence. Nicholas blamed it for stirring up trouble. Soon turned into a liberal focus for discontent.
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Aug 1915- deputies from 4th Duma organised themselves into what?
the Progressive Bloc. Demanded the Tsar changed his ministers and establish a goverenment of 'public confidence'. Basically asking for a constitutional monarchy.
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Nicholas wasn't preparded to give them this, what did he do instead?
Sept 1915- suspended the sittings of the Duma. Remained closed untol Jan 1917.
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After defeats in Sept 1915 in Galicia, what did Nicholas decide to do?
Become Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army and navy and travel to the frontline.
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Why was this a bad move?
Had large amounts of bravery and heroism, but had already lost the confidence of his General staff and had no military experience to turn the war effort around.
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What did this move make him appear as?
Responsible for the disasters that befell his troops, and distanced him from the disasters in Petrograd.
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Who was Rasputin?
A peasant who claimed to have mystical powers. He seemed to lessen the pain of the Tsar's haemophilliac son, and Alexandra said he was a 'man of God'.
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How did Rasputin play a role during the war?
Began to meddle in politiccal appointments and policy decisions.
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How did Nicholas' German wife play a role?
Rumours that she was delibertely sabotaging the war.
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What happened to the government durig the 1 months after Sept 1915?
Many changes of ministers, including 3/4 ministers in some ministries, and all down to Rasputin's influence.
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What did liberals and socialists want as a result?
Began to lose patience and demand changes in govt.
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What did the president of the Fourth Duma warn Nicholas about?
Rasputin's unpopularity and the damage he was doing to the Tsarist cause.
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But why couldn't he do anything?
Couldn't bring himself to take action against someone he and his wife relied upon so heavily.
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How was Rasputin murdered?
Prince Yusopov and an accomplice had invited Rasputin for evenign tea at his palace on 17th Dec 1916. Laced his cakes with cyanide battered him on the head with a candlestick just to make sure.
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Ncholas was more concerned about what than political demands?
His children's measles, said the political demands about lack of bread will 'all pass and quieten down'.
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Social impacts of the war
.....
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What did peasants begin to do?
Hording grain again, as there was nothing else to buy.
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How much did the cost of living go up by?
300%.
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What did this lead to?
An escalation of strikes.
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Economic problems in Russia
.....
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What did the cost of the war go up by and from?
From 1500 millio roubles in 1914 to 14500 million roubles in 1918.
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What happened to the factories?
Production slumped at the time needed most, even though womena nd children took over men's jobs.
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What did problems in the fuel supplies affect?
The railways. Supplies not getting where they need to be.
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What did the railways priortise?
Military supplies instead of food. Led to food shortages in the towns and cities.
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What did this lead to?
Industrial stikes. Jan 1917-30,000 workers went on strike in Moscow and 145,000 in Petrograd.
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By the winter of 1917, what had happened in the streets of Petrograd?
Pent up frustrations of the unemployed, the starving and desperate.
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What did a demostration in Petrograd show?
150,000 Petrograd workers on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday in Jan 1917 was a hint of things to come.
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Look at table of events of Feb 1917
.......
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What did the Petrograd Soviet agree to do?
With pressure from soldiers and mutinees from Kronstadt, they agreed that each regiment should elect committees and send representatives to the soviet
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What was produced in response to this?
The 'Order No1'- a charter for soldiers rights
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Name some of the things it promised.
All units to elect a deputy to the soviet and agree to the political control of Petrograd. All soilders can enjoy full citizens rights.
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Did Nicholas return to Petrograd?
No. Train diverted by rebellious railway workers and forced to stop at Pskov, 200 miles away from his destination.
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What were there calls from General staff to the Tsar?
To resign.
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What was the agreement on March 1st?
The Petrograd would recognise a Provisonal Government formed by members of the Duma.
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What did the tsar do on the 2nd March?
Nicholas agreed to the demand, named Grand Duke Mikhail as the new Tsar.
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Why didn't this work?
He refused the throne, and terms of Nicholas' abdication had already been agreed.
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What were the Tsar's family put under,, and what did this mean for the Tsars?
Put under house arrest. 304 years of the Romanov dynasty had came to an end.
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Russia under the Dual Power of 1917.
....
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PG- what did Mikhail relinquish in?
Political authority to the hastily-convened 'Provisonal Government' under Pricne Lvov.
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What did it's members represent?
a cross-section of the influential elites and those who had favoured a constituional monarchy-liberals, moderate socialists and Kadets.
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What was the original intention of the PG?
Be temporary, and lections held as soon as possible for a new Constituent Assembly.
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What did set itself up?
in the Duma chamber in Petrograd.
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PS- how was this deemed the more democratic organisation?
Mass of workers, soldiers and peasants regarded the PG as a self-appointed committee of the wealthy.
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Who was the PS dominated by?
Mensheviks and SRs, but also contained a small number of Bolsheviks. Establsihed it's headqaurtes in the palace in Petrograd.
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What did it lack?
The confidence of direct control.
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How did Alexander Kerensky help?
Only member of the PG and PS to agree to work together whcih laid the foundations for a period of Dual Power.
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What did the Soviet accept the PG's requests over?
Basic civil liberties, the right to organise trade unions and to strike, and that a Constituional Assembly will be elected.
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What did the PG add in April to these?
That the 'power of the state should be based, not on violence or coercion, but on the consent of free citizens to power themselves created.'
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What did they allow?
Freedom of religion and the press, abolished the death penalty, replaced the tsarist police with the 'people's militia'.
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Military issues of the war
.....
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What did the soldiers lack?
Basic weaponry, basic warm clothing and properly fitting, waterproof footwear .
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1914- what did the infantry have for soldiers?
Only two rifles for every 3 soldiers. Had to rely on weapons of the fallen.
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What was the Brusilov Offensive?
To push westwards from the Ukraine and into Austria-Hungary.
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What did the soldiers have by then?
Most frontline units had machine guns and artillery shells in June 1916.
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Dual power in action
.....
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What was never going to be easy about the Dual power system?
Mixture of liberals and radicals ruling.
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What did they disagree over?
The Provisonal Governments decisions.
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What did the PG try to do?
Discipline deserters and restore order in towns and countryside.
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What did the PS do in retaliation?
Encouraged peasants and workers to defy authority and assert their rights
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What continued under Dual Power?
Workers' strikes and military desertions.
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What did peasant disturbances affect?
34 districts in March 1917, this increased to 325 in July.
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What did Milyukov's annoucement led to?
His annoucement that the govt would continue fighting until a 'just peace' had been won, led to a massive anti-war demonstration in Petrograd.
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Whho did this force to resign?
Milyukov and Guchov.
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How many desertions had there been between 1914 and Feb 1917?
195,000.
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How many desertions between March and May 1917?
365,000.
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What was reinstated to stop people from deserting?
The death penalty.
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Who replaced Milyukov and Guchov?
Chernov became minister of agriculture (founder of SRs), and Kerensky became minister of war.
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Who was Prince Lvov replaced with as Chairman?
Kerensky.
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Who did these changes alarm?
The upper classes whose despair that the govt had failed to protect their property, maintain order, or win a war.
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What began in July 17?
Street riots- known as the 'July Days' exacerbated their fers (may or may not have beenn started by the Bolsheviks)
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Where were the hopes of the elites transferred to?
General Lavr Kornilov- Kerensky appointed him Commander in Chief of the army on 16th July.
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End of Aug- what did Kornilov order?
Six regiments of troops to march on Petrograd- intending to crush the Soviet annd establish a military dictatorship.
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Why did this coup failed?
Kerensky, who first supported Kornilov, panicked. He released imprisoned Bolsheviks, provided the Soviet with weapons to halt Kornilov's advance.
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What was the result of this?
Kornilov's supply lines were cut and the coup leaders arrested.
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Summer 1917- support for PG?
Very little..
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Why was support so little?
Food supplies were chaotic in the towns. Although govt granted an 8 hour day, real wages fell rapidly in 1917. oCt- 755% .
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What did this mean for the hopes of the workers that unions and factories would be able to improve?
They were dashed in August, when the right of factory owners to dissmiss workers who went on strike were confirmed. Meetings during working hour were forbidden.
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How did the govt lose support in the countryside?
The continuation of the war and the failure to redistribute land.
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What did the govt claim about this?
That such an important issue had to be left unitl after russia had a democratic assembly. Peasants seized land anyway in spite of this.
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Although an electoral comission was established in May, for elections in Nov, what was there suspicion over?
The 'bourgeois' govt was deliberately delaying this for the beneift of staying in power for longer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened to the Duma?

Back

It dissolved itself. Didn't want to burden the country with 'uneccesary politics' during war time.

Card 3

Front

What did St Petersburg get renamed to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was assmebled quickly?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

But why was the spirit of national solidarity dampened?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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