Treatments of Depression

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What is ECT?
when a small electrical current is passed through the brain, enough to cause the patient to have a fit
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What side effects are there to ECT?
memory loss, disorientation and broken bones (although this is rare nowadays)
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What did Sackheim (1989) say about the effectiveness of CBT?
real ECT is better than placebo ECT and bilateral is better than unilateral (despite the memory loss)- more effective than anti-depressant drugs but a combination prevents relapses
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What does Scott (2004) say about the effectiveness of CBT?
it's a short term treatment (6 months)- it hasn't been compared with new anti-depressant drugs which may out perform it
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What evaluation points from schizophrenia can be used here?
ethical issues, diathesis stress model, ignores social factors and neurotransmitters
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What did Johnstone (2003) say about the use of ECT?
in 1999- 11,000 patients were given ECT (2/3 women) it improved 50% of cases where no other treatment had worked
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What are the key features of CBT?
collecting a thoughts diary of all the negative thoughts you think throughout the day, then learning how to challenge those thoughts by asking yourself where the evidence for this is
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What is behavioural activation?
the idea that becoming active will give you rewards to act as an antidote to depression- you will go through activities with your therapist that could potentially bring about pleasure- a common symptom of depression is the loss of interest in things
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What did Hollon et al (2002) say about the effectiveness of CBT?
better than drug therapy at preventing relapses because it gives you a life skill
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What did Butler et al (2006) say?
16 met-analyses concluded that CBT is highly effective at treating depression
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Holmes (2002)?
the biggest study carried out by the National Mental Health Institute concluded the CBT is less effective than drug treatment and some other psychological treatments
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Did Kuyken and Tsivikos (2009) support the use of CBT?
said that up to 15% of the variance in outcome can be due to the therapist who conducted the sessions
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What did Bryant et al (1999) say?
a clients engagement in homework is important in predicting their outcomes- the more willing the patient is to change, the better they will do
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How can drop outs effect the effectiveness of CBT?
people who complete the treatment are more likely to benefit from it as they want to get better
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Who is not suitable for CBT?
those with lots of negative thoughts that are resistant to challenging them
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Card 2

Front

What side effects are there to ECT?

Back

memory loss, disorientation and broken bones (although this is rare nowadays)

Card 3

Front

What did Sackheim (1989) say about the effectiveness of CBT?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does Scott (2004) say about the effectiveness of CBT?

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Card 5

Front

What evaluation points from schizophrenia can be used here?

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