Treatments of Depression

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where did Anti-depressents first appear?
1950s
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What do these drugs aim to change?
the chemical or neurotransmitter activity in the brains of people with depression
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What is thought to be the main cause of the symptoms of depression?
imbalance in the activityies of these chemicals
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What is the main symptom of depression?
suicidal thinking, low self esteem and negative thinking
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What do anti-depressants drug increase?
levels of serotonin
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What were the early drugs? and were they effective?
MAOI(monoanime oxidase inhibitors) and yes
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what was the main problem with them?
had serious side effects
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What was introduced in the 1990s?
SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
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What is an example?
Prozac
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When will SSRIs start to kick in?
2-3 weeks
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What do they aim to do?
Stop the reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin
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what happens at the synapse?
neurotransmitters are released
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What happens to them then?
they are reabsorbed, broken down or passed on to the next neuron
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what about someone with depression?
too much is reabsorbed or too much is broken down
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How do antidepressant drugs work?
they slow down these processes and raise serotonin
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How do MAOIs work?
by breaking down the enzyme that destroys serotonin in the synapse
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How do SSRIs work?
blocking the reuptake of serotonin
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What does research suggest?
the success rate for antidepressant drugs is somewhere between 50-60%
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What is one strength of anti depressant drug treatments?
comes in supporting evidence from Elkin
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What did he find about anti depressants?
eliminated depressive sumptoms in 50-60% of patients
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Where as how many on the placebo showed the same improvement?
29%
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what acts more quickly?
drug treatments
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What might the effects not be?
Long lasting
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What does this suggest that drug treatment?
an effective way of treating depression
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Therefore?
improve the quality of people's lives with people with depression
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particularly when?
used in conjunction with CBT
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In methodological terms how can drug treatments for depression be awarded?
the background research which underpins these treatments is scientific and reliable
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For example what does the use of placebo group allow
comparisons and predictions
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What might critics question?
individual differnces between the pps with Depression in the drug and placebo group
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what would it affect?
the outcome of the drug treatment
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how is the effectiveness of drugs or CBt measured?
Hamiltn rating scale for depression
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Is what?
subjective rather than objective
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What is one weakness for antidepressant drugs?
have side effects
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What did the early drugs do?
raise blood pressure
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What would the patients have to avoid?
foods such as cheese
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What is it easy to do?
Overdose
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What can SSRIS lead to?
nausea and insomnia
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What happens once a patient has stopped taking the drug
Depression returnd
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What does it suggest?
ethical balance between the positive side effects and negative effects
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What is Cognitive behavourial therapy based on?
nurture rather than nature
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What does this treatment assume?
Depression is caused by faulty processing rather than faulty neurotransmitters
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What does CBT aim to challenge?
the negative thinking associated with Depression and replace it with positive thinking
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What strategies?
thought catching and behavioural activation
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What does the treatment challenge?
negative triad
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What does this lead a depressive to?
hold a pessimistic view of themselves, the world and the future
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What does this aim to change?
any dysfunctional behaviors that might be contributing to the depression
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How many sessions are for CBT?
16-20
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What will be given regularly?
homework
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What is the success rate?
60%
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What do clients draw up first?
a schedule of activities so they get out and about and do routine tasks
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What should this do to moods?
lift them and reduce feelings of social isolation and worthlessness
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What will the CB therapist start to challenge?
negative thoughts of the client
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What would the client have to record?
their automatic thoughts during the week
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through what?
a dysfunctional thought diary
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What happens after 20 sessions?
the client may be put on a mantenance CBt programe
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What is this?
can be done on line- where - NHS's beating the blues is said to have a high success rate
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What is one strength of CBT treatments?
comes in supporting evidence from Hollon using 240 pps, and the HRSD
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What did he find?
he found clients on CBT improved much more than those on drugs or on placebos
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What is an added bonus?
there are no side effects of CBT, as there with antidepressents
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Although what did Hollen find?
CBT works best in conjunction with antidepressants.
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What does this suggest>
CBT can significantly improve the quality of lives for many people with depression
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However what might critics question?
the validity of Hollen's conclusions about CBT due to the hello good bye effect
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Why is this a problem?
people with depression often overestimate their symptoms at the start of treatment in order to get care, but underestimate their symtoms at the end
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What does this overestimation show?
effectiveness of treatments for depression could make the effiacy of treatments look higher than it is
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What is the weakness of both drug and talking treatments for Depression?
comes from publication bias
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What does this mean?
researchers suppress damaging findings, making scientifically impossible to assess the value of treatments for D
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For example?
many doctors used to prescribe Reboxetine because one published trial based on 254 pps
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What does this suggest?
it was an effective anti depressant
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However what research took place?
6 trials with 2000+ pps revealed Reboxetine was no better than a placebo
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What was not published?
none of these 6 trials
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What does this suggest?
published research which underpind both treatments for Depression can be one sided
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Card 2

Front

What do these drugs aim to change?

Back

the chemical or neurotransmitter activity in the brains of people with depression

Card 3

Front

What is thought to be the main cause of the symptoms of depression?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the main symptom of depression?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do anti-depressants drug increase?

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