Treatment & Punishment of Crime

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2012=84,000, best way or not gains momentum, strain on resources, inhumane conditions, government need to know if it is an effective deterrent?
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Lloyd et al
E&W recidivism 54%-70%(type of offender/length of follow up), not effective
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Greatest Strength
Protects public, secure surroundings, no longer a danger to society, violent offenders
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Main Problem
Doesn't address root cause, explains high recidivism rates, social factors=reoffend
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Punishment Orientated Regimes
Behaviourist principles (environment),UK 1980's short sharp shock scheme/bootcamps, incarceration, military, labour
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Mackenzie & Shaw
Bootcamps vs prisons, bootcamps=more positive about experiences & future, pro-social attitudes
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Types of offenders suitable for bootcamps were non-violent convicts, may not be appropriate for all criminals
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Modern prisons=psychological principles for rehabilitation, cognitive=aim to identify correct cognitive deficits which lead to criminal behaviour
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Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) & Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R)
ETS=compulsory group work sessions, think before acting, role play. R&R=under-socialised, lacking values, attitudes, reasoning & social skills for appropriate behaviour, P.S, emotion management.
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Major Strength (Hollin et al)
Lower recidivism rates, Hollin=male offenders in treatment groups reoffend less than controls according to a review by E&W probation service, treatment=effective
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However (Palmer et al)
CBT programmes may only work with medium/high risk offenders, BUT designed for these people & want success from these particular offenders.
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Gender Bias
ETS & R&R developed with males in mind, female recidivism rates havent reduced, wording changed but content still the same.
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Token Economy
Behaviourist principles to encourage desired behaviour, reinforced through tokens, exchanged for privileges, punishment=isolation
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Hobbs and Holt
young offenders institution, increased appropriate behaviours in boys/adolescents,treatment=effective
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However (Bassett&Blanchard)
importance of consistency,lacking due to staff misusing the system=treatment failing
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Jenkins et al
followed up male offenders 18 months after release, token economy lower recidivism rates than cognitive programmes
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Modern Times
token economy replaced by cognitive treatements, treats only overt behaviour e.g. aggression not cause
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Zero Tolerance (Kelling&Wilson)
respond to all crime equally as serious, Broken Window Theory, downward spiral of crime, tackle minor to stop escalating, vicarious learning, observing others getting punished
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1st used in New York City, Police Commissioner, 7000 extra officers, low level crimes,crime rate dropped 37%, homicide rate dropped 50%
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Detective Superintendent Ray Mallon
suspended head of Middlesbrough CID, most colourful advocate of ZT in UK, 1996=quit if he didnt cut crime by 20% in 18 months, Robocop, successful
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Increased police presence in the streets
caused decrease not ZT, crime in other states reduced without ZT, other factors e.g. decreased drug supply over several states responsible for reduction
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criticised ZT for being too harsh, harassment for non-criminal acitivities (drinking) = detrimental, alienates the community, long-term policing problems
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Lloyd et al


E&W recidivism 54%-70%(type of offender/length of follow up), not effective

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Greatest Strength


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Main Problem


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Punishment Orientated Regimes


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