Treatment for kidney failure

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 03-03-16 20:55
What are the most common reasons for kidney failure?
Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, infection.
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What are the 2 main treatments for kidney failure?
Dialysis and transplant.
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What does dialysis do?
Removes waste, excess fluid and salts from the blood using a dialysis machine.
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What allows the exchange of substances between blood and dialysis fluid?
Partially permeable membrane.
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What happens in haemodialysis?
Blood from a vein is passed into a machine containing an artificial dialysis membrane.
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What is added and why?
Heparin to avoid clotting.
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Describe peritoneal dialysis
Implants a permanent tube into the abdomen. Solution poured into tube and refreshed after a few hours.
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What is the major problem with a kidney transplant?
Can be rejected as the immune system may recognise it as foreign. Patients given immunosuppressant drugs to avoid rejection.
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What are the advantages of kidney transplants?
Freedom, not feeling of chronically ill, diet is less limited, better quality of life.
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What are the disadvantages of kidney transplants?
Immunosuppressant drugs needed for life of kidney, frequent check ups, major surgery, risks of surgery, side effects.
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What is the hormone associated with pregnancy testing?
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What are pregnancy tests manufactured with?
Monoclonal antibodies.
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What can the antibody be described as and what will hCG do?
Specific and hCG will bind to an immobilised antibodies and form a line with the blue beads attached.
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Describe haemodialysis
Arterial blood leaves arm and is pumped in machine.Blood thinners prevent clotting and dialysis fluid carrying waste products removed.Through dialysis machine+clean blood flows through bubble trap to get rid of them,clean blood returns to vein in arm
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What causes the blue line on pregnancy tests?
Mobile antibodies have a blue bead which causes blue line.
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What does more hCG in urine mean?
More complexes formed.
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What happens if there is not enough urine on the wick?
May be pregnant, but line is not high enough to know.
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How is it known that someone is definitely pregnant?
Blue line in both strips.
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What is the 1st step in pregnancy testing?
Wick dipped in urine.
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What happens after the wick is dipped in urine?
Monoclonal mobile antibodies are complementary to hCG and bind.
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What is formed?
hCG antibody complexes.
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What happens after binding?
Immobilised antibodies bind to hCG, blue line appears showing pregnancy.
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What happens after immbolisied antibodies bind to hCG?
Immobilised antibodies bind to mobile antibodies.
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What is there an absence of here and what will still happen?
Absence of hCG complex, blue line will still show if urine had gone all the way up.
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Describe what happens once an embryo is implanted in the womb
The embryo begins to secrete a hormone called hCG which is a relatively small protein that can pass into glomerular filtrate. Can be detected 6 days after conception and still used in testing kits.
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What do anabolic steroids increase in cells?
Increase protein synthesis within cells.
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What does this increase cause?
A build-up of cell tissue, especially in muscles.
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What is a problem about using anabolic steroids?
Have dangerous side effects and puts a lot of pressure on the heart.
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Why do athletic people use them?
Allows them to train for longer, respire for longer and can recover from injury quicker and build up muscle mass.
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What is the half life of anabolic steroids and describe them
Half life of 16 hours and remain in blood for many days. Relatively small and enter nephron easily.
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What does testing for anabolic steroids involve?
Involves analysing a urine sample in a laboratory using gas chromatography or mass spectrometry.
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What happens first in gas chromatography?
The sample is vapourised in the presence of a gaseous solvent.
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Where is the sample passed down?
Sample passed down a long tube lined with an absorbent agent.
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Describe the diffusion of each substance
Each substance diffuses differently in the gas and stays there for a unique, specific time (retention time).
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What happens when each substance comes out of the gas?
It is absorbed onto the tube lining.
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What is then analysed?
Lining is then analysed to create a chromatogram.
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How will they know if the substance is legal?
Know by comparing it to known substances.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the 2 main treatments for kidney failure?


Dialysis and transplant.

Card 3


What does dialysis do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What allows the exchange of substances between blood and dialysis fluid?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What happens in haemodialysis?


Preview of the front of card 5
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