Transport in animals

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What factors determine an organisms need for a transport system?
1)level of activity 2)size i.e. depth/ maximum diffusion distance 3)surface area:volume ratio
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What is an open blood system?
Blood moves freely over the tissues, it is not confined to vessels.
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What is a closed system?
Blood is confined to vessels, usually in larger and more active organisms. The pumping action of the heart maintains high pressure and various control systems interact for a more controlled distribution of blood. Rapid delivery of O2 and glucose.
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Double circulation
Blood flows through the heart twice in one pathway around the body. Right side->lungs->left side=pulmonary circulation left->body->right=systemic
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Blood vessel entering right atrium for head?
Superior vena cava
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Blood vessel entering right atrium from body?
Inferior vena cava
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Blood vessel leaving right ventricle to lungs?
pulmonary artery
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Blood vessel leaving left ventricle to body?
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gut to liver
hepatic portal vein
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oxygen to liver
hepatic artery
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liver to heart
hepatic vein
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branch of aorta delivering oxygen to the head
carotid artery
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red blood cell
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white blood cell
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What type of muscle is the heart?
myogenic cardiac muscle
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prevents oxygenated and deoxygenated from mixing
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What prevent AV valves inverting?
they are attached to papillary muscles by chordae tendinae which become taut as capillary muscles contract
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Bicupsid v tricuspid
tri-right, 3 flaps bi-left,2 flaps
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What happens during atrial systole?
the atria are contracting so the volume in the atria decreases so the pressure on the blood in the atria increases, Blood is moving from the atria to ventricles. the AV valves are pushed open (one compartment) but the SL valves are closed
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What happens during ventricular systole?
The atria relaxes and the ventricles contract. The volume of the ventricle decreases and the pressure increases. AV valves are pushed shut and the SL vales are pushed open
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cardiac muscles are relaxed. SL close as higher pressure in arteries. volume of both increases so the pressure of both decreases. The blood is at a higher pressure outside the heart so enters atria. Some trickles into ventricles
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Control of the heart beat
The SAN generates electrical activity. Wave of excitation spreads across atria. Non conductive valves prevents passing to ventricle. Picked up by AVN, down bundle of his and purkyne fibres in ventricle walls. contraction spreads up
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Symapthetic/vagus nerves
speeds heart rate/slows heartrate
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P-spread of electrical activity over atria QRS-spread of electrical activity over surface of ventricles T-time when ventricles are filling with blood
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Elevation of ST-arithmia(heart attack). small, unclear P-atrial fibrilation. deep S-ventricular hypertrophy( increases muscle thickness) e.g. angina
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What constricts the arterioles and why?
Contraction of the sphincter muscles to reduce blood flow to the capillary bed and divert it to other parts of the body.
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Small lumen. They have thick walls to withstand high pressure. Smooth muscles controls diameter. elastic fibres stretch and recoil. squamous epithelium-less resistance. outer layer of collagen- prevents bursting
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thin walls-flattened by skeletal muscles. very little smooth muscle- aren't constricted, very little elastic fibres- don't need to stretch and recoil. thin outer layer of collagen- walls can distend to accommodate blood. valves prevent backflow
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permeable walls-exchange. very narrow lumen-RBC squashed-short diffusion. single layer of squamous epithelium-rapid/short diffusion. small-many in a small space->large SA. low pressure-time for exchange
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Red blood cell features
very small-short diffusion distance, no nucleus etc.-more room for Hb. biconcave-increases SA. contains carbonic anhydrase- needed for CO2 transport
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White blood cells
lots of RER. phagocytes have lots of lysosomes-ensymes for digesting bacteria. phagocytes have a lobed nucleus and lymphocytes have a large round nucleus
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Plasma proteins-maintain water potential
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small, no nucleus, blood clotting
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Tissue fluid formation
Arteriole end: High hydrostatic pressure causes liquid to be ultrafiltrared through leaky capillary bed. At venous end water potential is lower in blood(due to plasma particles) so water starts to rejoin blood. Excess drains into lymph vessels.
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erythroyctes, leucocytes, platelets, plasma proteins, some lipoproteins, 80-120 mg glucose, more oxygen, little CO2
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Tissue fluid
some phagocytes, proteins secreted by body cells, no fats, less glucose, less O2, more CO2
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lymphocytes, some proteins, more fats than blood, less glucose, less O2, more CO2
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complex globular protein with 2 subunits (2 alpha and 2 beta). They contain irom.
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Oxygen dissociation- at low pp
at low pp:doesn't readily take up O2, low affinity, haem group at centre, difficult to reach and associate, only low saturation achieved (in tissues so O2 dissociates->respiring cells).increased H+,temp or CO2 increases this.
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as the pp rises
the diffusion gradient into haemoglobin increases so eventually one O2 binds. this causes a conformation change in shape allowing more O2 to bind more easily. COOPERATIVE BINDING
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at high pp
once 3 have bound, it's more difficult for 4th to diffuse in and bind,high affinity. Almost 100% in lungs.
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Bohr shift
When tissues are respiring more, more CO2 is releases so more H+ ions are produced so oxyhaemoglobin releases more O2. (Hb less saturated with O2) curve shifts down and right
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fetal Hb
higher affinity. pick up O2 in placenta despite low pp O2...curve shifts to the left and higher
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CO2 transport
10% combines with Hb to form carbaminohaemoglobin.85% as hydrogen carbonate[CO2+H2O->carbonic acid(carbonic anhydrase needed)carbonic acid dissociates into H+ and hydrogen carbonate][oxyhaemoglobin dissociates-4O2 and Hb.Hb+H+->haemoglobinic acid
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Card 2


What is an open blood system?


Blood moves freely over the tissues, it is not confined to vessels.

Card 3


What is a closed system?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Double circulation


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Blood vessel entering right atrium for head?


Preview of the front of card 5
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