transport in plants

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How does the vascular bundles in xylem help with its structure?
it helps to stop it bending and support
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What are the two types of xylem?
Tracheid and vesicular
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What are the two features that the xylem is used for?
transport of water and minerals, providing strength and support
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soil water has a ____ ______, vacuole and cytoplasm have a ___ and more _______ potential and passes through by osmosis, ____ a water potential gradient
High potential, low, negative, down.
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Which pathway moves through cell walls?
Apoplast pathway
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The symplast pathway moves through cytoplasm and through, true or false?
False, cytoplasm and plasmodesmata
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which two main ways water goes through xylem?
symplast, apoplast
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why can't water enter the xylem from the apoplast pathway?
because lignin makes xylem walls waterproof
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what is the casparian strip?
they are formed by a waxy material, suberin, forming casparian strip next to endodermis, this prevents water moving further in the apoplast and drives into the cytoplasm.
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for the water to move into xylem it needs to be more negative, which two ways does it achieve this.
water potential of endodermis cells are raised by water driven by casparian strip, water potential of the xylem is decreased by active transport of mineral salts
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How are minerals generally absorbed into the cytoplasm?
active transport, against a concentration gradient
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What three factors help the movement of water and minerals transport upwards?
cohesion tension, capillarity, root pressure
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What is Transpiration?
The evaporation of water vapour from the leaves or other above-ground parts of the plant, out through stomata into the atmosphere.
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What four factors affect the rate of transpiration?
Temperature, Humidity, Air Movement, Light Intensity
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water passes from root hair cells across the root cortex down a ________ ________ gradient. the water passes mainly along two pathways, the ________ and the apoplast pathways. on reaching the endodermis a band of suberin called the _________ _____
water potential, symplast, casparian strip
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what are mesophytes?
plants living in conditions with adequate water supplies
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what are the type of plants that live in conditions where water is scarce?
Xerophytes
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What are hydrophytes?
water plants
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what five modifications do xerophytes have?
rolled leaves, sunken stomata , hairs, thick cuticle, fibres
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water evaportatesnfrom the air spaces of a leaf in transpiration, mainly through pores called ______ normally in the lower epidermis. xerophytes live in conditions of low water availability. typically they have ___ stomata and a thick waxy ___
stomata, sunken, cuticle
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What is translocation?
the active movement of the soluble products of photosynthesis, such as sucrose and amino acids, through phloem, from sources to sinks
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how are the mineral transported by phloem or xylem?
phloem
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What is a source?
site of synthesis
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what is a sink?
place of storage or growth.
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what two cells combine to make phloem?
sieve cells, companion cells
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what does ringing experiment mean?
a ring taken from a woody piece and left to photosynthesis, top half had lots of sucrose which suggested translocation and no on bottom suggestion it had been used by the plant.
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what does radioactive tracers and autoradiography mean?
a plant photosynthesises in the presence of a radioactive isotope, stem section is placed on a photographic film. the isotope positions in the phloem indication of translocation.
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explain aphid experiment?
when the aphid put stylet into phloem to **** up sugars it was removed and the phloem extract was collected and shown sucrose was present.
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translocation is the transport of organic solutes such as ___ and amino acids away from where they are made, the source, to other parts of the plant. where they are used for growth or storage. the __ they are transported in the phloem cells called _.
sucrose, sinks, sieve tube elements
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two types of xylem?

Back

Tracheid and vesicular

Card 3

Front

What are the two features that the xylem is used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

soil water has a ____ ______, vacuole and cytoplasm have a ___ and more _______ potential and passes through by osmosis, ____ a water potential gradient

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which pathway moves through cell walls?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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