Transport in Animals

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Give the two arteries that carry deoxygenated blood.
Pulmonary and umbilical
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What adaptations to structure does an artery have to make it more efficient?
Smooth endothelium to reduce friction for smooth flow. Relatively thin lumen to maintain high pressure. High amounts of elastic fibres and smooth muscle to stretch and keep flow continuous.
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Why do veins have a wider lumen than arteries?
The blood is under much less hydrostatic pressure.
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What is the role of skeletal muscle and valves?
Valves prevent blood flowing backwards. Skeletal muscle surrounding veins can contract and apply pressure onto vein to force blood in correct direction.
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Where does the inferior vena cava receive blood from?
The lower body
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Define vasodilation and vasoconstriction
Vasodilation - arterioles relax and allow blood to flow into capillary bed. Vasoconstriction - Arterioles contract and prevent blood from flowing into capillary bed.
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What is the difference between blood and tissue fluid?
Blood is held within blood vessels and tissue fluid bathes individual cells. Blood contains plasma proteins, RBC'Ss and WBC's.
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How is tissue fluid formed from blood?
Hydrostatic pressure from the heart forces tissue fluid out of capillary pores. RBC, WBC and plasma proteins are too big to fit through so they remain in capillary.
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What causes tissue fluid to move back into the capillary?
There is a high solute in the capillary and a more negative water potential. This leads to oncotic pressure. Eventually the hydrostatic pressure decreases to below the oncotic pressure which causes the tissue fluid to move back into vessels.
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Does all tissue fluid return to capillaries?
No, excess tissue fluid drains into the lymphatic system and eventually rejoins with blood.
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What is the role of the semi lunar valves?
They are found where blood leaves the heart. They prevent back flow into the ventricles.
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Describe the differences in thickness of the wall of the chambers of the heart.
Thinnest - Right atrium (only going to lungs) Left atrium (create pressure) Right Ventricle (only going to lungs do not want to burst capillaries) Left ventricle (needs enough pressure to pump to whole body.)
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When are atrioventricular valves needed?
They are open during atrial systole, they close just before ventricular systole, they open again at diastole.
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Where can coronary arteries be found? What is their function?
Over the surface of the heart, they provide the heart with oxygenated blood.
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What are myocytes?
Tissues with a slight charge.
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Explain the mechanism of atrial systole
SAN in right atrium depolarises and the wave spreads over the atria and causes them to contract which forces blood through the AV valves and into the ventricles.
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Explain the mechanism of ventricular systole
After a 0.1 second delay the impulse reaches the AVN which spreads depolarisation down to the apex through the bundles of His. This causes contraction of ventricles and blood rushes out of aorta and pulmonary artery.
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How is CO2 transported in the body?
5% dissolved in plasma, 10-20% carbaminohaemoglobin, 75-85% HCO3 in cytoplasm of RBC.
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Describe how co2 is transported in RBC's.
CO2 + H20 -> H2CO3 (catalysed by carbonic anhydrase). H2CO3 dissasociates into H+ and HCO3-. HCO3- diffuses down the chemical gradient into the plasma, and the H+ is taken up by buffers to form haemoglobinic acid.
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What is the chloride shift?
Chloride ions move into RBC to balance acidity of the haemoglobin acid
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Why can CO2 not be transported as CO2 within RBC?
It would reduce the concentration gradient of co2 in the blood.
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Why do mammals require a double circulatory system?
They need to maintain their body temperature which requires ATP. They are very active and therefore respire a lot which means a high oxygen demand and a need for rapid removal of waste products.
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What is the name of of the machine that traces heartbeats?
Electrocardiogram Trace (ECG)
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What does the QRS complex show?
Ventricular systole.
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What is bradycardia?
Slow heart rate of below 60 bpm
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What name is given to the condition where the heart beats at over 100 bpm
Tachycardia
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What is the difference between an ectopic heartbeat and atrial fibrillation?
An ectopic heartbeat is where there is an extra heartbeat. Atrial fibrillation is when the atria contract very fast and irregularly but the ventricles barely contract.
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Why does fetal haemoglobin need a higher affinity for oxygen than human haemoglobin?
Oxygen must associate in an area of low partial pressure so it must cause mother haemoglobin to dissassociate.
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Why is the oxygen disasociation curve S shaped?
It is difficult for the first haemoglobin to bind as the haem group is in the middle. Once it associates the tertiary structure of Hb changes and allows molecules to associate easier. The curve levels off when approaching 100% saturation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What adaptations to structure does an artery have to make it more efficient?

Back

Smooth endothelium to reduce friction for smooth flow. Relatively thin lumen to maintain high pressure. High amounts of elastic fibres and smooth muscle to stretch and keep flow continuous.

Card 3

Front

Why do veins have a wider lumen than arteries?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the role of skeletal muscle and valves?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where does the inferior vena cava receive blood from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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