Translation and Transcription

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Gene
stretch of DNA with a specific nucleotide base sequence that codes for one or more polpeptides
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Allele
Alternate form of a gene
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Dominant
The allele is always expressed if present
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Recessive
The allele is only expressed in the absence of the dominant allele
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Homozygous
Alleles are the same
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Heterozygous
alleles are different
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Polypeptide
Sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
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Genome
Sum total of all genetic nfo in an organism i.e. nucleus and mitochondria
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Locus of gene
The position of a gene on a chromosome
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Chromosome
Consists of one DNA molecule with histone protein
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Why is the triplet code ambiguous?
So if there is a single base mutation, the amino acid coded does not change. Hence, the protein coded for doesn't change and so the properties of it are not altered i.e. hydophillic/hydrophobic
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What's the start codon?
AUG or ATG- methionine
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What are the stop codons?
UAG, UGA, UAA
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What are the exceptions to the universal triplet code?
Mitochondrial DNA has two codons for methionine. One stop codoin is used fore tryptophan. Protoctista's stop codon is used to code for glutamic acid.
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Enzyme used in transcription?
RNA polymerase
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Enzyme used in translation?
DNA polymerase
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Where does translation occur?
Cytoplasm
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What does the small subunit in the ribosome do?
Read mRNA codons
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What does the large subunit in the ribosome do?
Joins amino acids to form the polypeptide
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Describe the structure of tRNA
Clover leaf structure. 3 exposed nucleotides at one end. Atthe head lies the anticodon- 3 unpaired nucleotides
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What enzyme facilitates the peptide bonds made in translation?
Peptidyl transferase
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What's CAMP?
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate- alters the 3D shape of protein for a better fit with its complementary molecule
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Card 2

Front

Allele

Back

Alternate form of a gene

Card 3

Front

Dominant

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Recessive

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Homozygous

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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