Translation

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Why does translation occur in a 5' to 3' direction?
The start codon AUG is at the 5' end of the mRNA sequence
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What does the small ribosomal subunit bind to?
the mRNA strand
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What binds to the large ribosomal subunit?
They have 3 tRNA binding sites, the A site, P site and E site
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Where do freely floating ribosomes produce proteins for?
Within the cell
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Where do ribosomes of the Rough ER produce proteins for?
Outside the cell and for use in the lysosomes
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What type of enzyme is required in the activation process before translation can occur?
Specific tRNA- activating enzyme
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How does a tRNA molecule become charged and ready for translation?
The specific tRNA-activating enzyme binds an amino acid and ATP to form an activated amino acid. (ATP becomes AMP). AMP is released and the amino acid attaches to the specific tRNA.
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Briefly describe initiation.
Involves the assembly of an active ribosomal complex
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Explain initiation.
The small ribosomal subunit binds to the mRNA until it reaches AUG start codon. The complementary anticodon tRNA binds to the mRNA codon. The large subunit aligns and forms a complex with the small subunit.
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What occurs in Elongation?
New amino acids are brought to the ribosome according to the codon sequence
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What occurs in Translocation?
Amino acids are translocated to a growing polypeptide chain
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What occurs in Termination?
Elongation and Translocation continue until the small ribosomal subunit reaches a STOP codon (which do not code for any amino acid). The polypeptide is released and the ribosome disassembles.
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Card 2

Front

What does the small ribosomal subunit bind to?

Back

the mRNA strand

Card 3

Front

What binds to the large ribosomal subunit?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do freely floating ribosomes produce proteins for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where do ribosomes of the Rough ER produce proteins for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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