TRANSITION METALS

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what is a transition metal?
d block element that can have at least one ion with an incomplete subshell
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Which two metals are not transition metals? why?
Sc and Zn/ Sc form one Sc3+ ion which has an empty 3d/ Zn forms Zn2+ with a full 3d
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Describe the properties of transition metals
variable oxidation state/ formation of coloured compounds/ formation of complex ions/ catalysts
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Describe te variable oxidation states of transition metals
4s and 3d energy levels are close in energy, similar amounts of energy can cause loss or gain of multiple electrons
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Describe the catalytic use of transition metals
change oxidation states by gaining or losing electrons within their d orbitals can speed up reactions/ Fe in haber/ Ni in margarine
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What is a precipitation reaction?
TM ions in solution react with other aqueous ions to produce an insoluble precipitate
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state the precipitation reactions you need to know
Co/ Cu/ Fe2+/ Fe3+
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describe the precipitation reaction of copper
light blue -> dark blue ppt
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describe the precipitation of cobalt
pink -> blue
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describe the precipitin reaction of Fe2+
pale green -> dark green
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describe the precipitation reaction of Fe3+
yellow -> orange
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What is a complex ion?
central metal ion surrounded by ligands
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what is a ligand?
molecule/ ion that can form coordinate binds with central metal ions
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What is a coordinate bond?
shared pair of electrons in a bond where both have come from the same atom
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what is a coordination number?
number of coordinate bonds formed to a central metal ion
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what is a mono dentate ligand? give some examples
from one coordinate bond/ H2O/ NH3/ Cl-/CN-
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What is a bidentate ligand? give some exampled
forms two coordinate bonds - (COO-)2/ NH2-CH2-CH2-NH2 (en)
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What is cis platin? what is it used as?
square planar complex ion/ two NH3/ two Cl/ binds to cancer cells/ no overall change/ chemotherapy drug - unpleasant side effects
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Outline isomerism in complex ions
cis/ trans in square planar and octahedral when 2:4/ optical
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What ligand substitution reactions do you need to know?
Cu and Cl/ NH3 Co and Cl
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Describe the ligand substation reaction of copper with aqueous ammonia
displaces 4H2O/ deep blue solution and blue ppt. ammonia creates metal hydroxide as well
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Describe the ligand substitution of copper with chlorine
4Cl/ displaces all H2O/ blue -> yellow/ -2 charge
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Describe the ligand substitution of cobalt wth chlorine
4Cl/ displaces all water/ pink -> blue/ 2- charge
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Describe haemoglobin and its ligand substitutions
Hb carries oxygen in he body/ Fe2+ ions bonded to molecule with 4N-/ H2O in low conc and O2 in high/ CO displaces the water an forms a much stronger bond
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Card 2

Front

Which two metals are not transition metals? why?

Back

Sc and Zn/ Sc form one Sc3+ ion which has an empty 3d/ Zn forms Zn2+ with a full 3d

Card 3

Front

Describe the properties of transition metals

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe te variable oxidation states of transition metals

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the catalytic use of transition metals

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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