Tourism definitions and concepts

definitions, concepts and theory

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Exploration Stage (Butlers Life Cycle)
characterised by small numbers of tourists, Plog’s allocentrics and Cohen's explorers making individual travel arrangements and following irregular visitation
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Examples of destination at exploration stage (Butlers life cycle)
seen in parts of the Canadian Arctic and Latin America, to which tourists are attracted by natural and cultural-historical features.
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Involvement Stage (Bulters Life Cycle)
begins to provide facilities primary or even exclusively for visitors.
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Examples of destination at involvement stage (Butlers life cycle)
smaller, less developed pacific and Caribbean islands as well as less accessible areas of western Europe and North America
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Development Stage (Bulters Life Cycle)
well defined tourist market areas, shaped in part by heavy advertising in tourist generating areas
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Examples of destination at developement stage (Butlers life cycle)
can be seen in parts of Mexico, on the more developed Pacific islands, and on the north and west African coasts
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Consolidation Stage (Butlers Life Cycle)
rate of increase in number of visitors will decline, although total numbers will still increase, and total visitor numbers exceed number of permeant residents
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Examples of destination at consolidation stage (Butlers life cycle)
Areas of the caribbean and on the northern mediterranean
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Stagnation Stage (Butlers Life Cycle)
peak number of visitors will have been reached. Capacity level for many variables will have been reached or exceeded, with attendant environmental, social and economic problems.
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Examples of destination at stagnation stage (Butlers life cycle)
Costa Brava report of spain
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Decline Stage (Butlers Life Cycle)
area will not be able to compete with newer attractions and so will face a declining market
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Examples of destination at decline stage (Butlers life cycle)
older resort areas of Europe e.g Firth of Clyde in Scotland. Miami beach.
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Rejuvenation Stage (Butlers Life Cycle)
will not be reached without a complete change in the attractions which the tourism is based. Could be done by the addition of man made attractions or take advantage of the untaped natural resources
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Examples of destination at decline stage (Butlers life cycle)
Atlantic City and European spa cities
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Plogs Psychocentric
conservative in their travel patterns and prefer safer destinations
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Plogs Allocentic
Adventurous and motivated to travel and discover new destinations
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Cohen (1974) Organised Mass Tourist
one a highly organised package holiday, as their contact with the host community in the destination is minimal
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Cohen (1974) Individual Mass Tourist
use similar facilities to the organised mass tourist, but also desire to other sight not covered on organised tours in the destination
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Card 2

Front

seen in parts of the Canadian Arctic and Latin America, to which tourists are attracted by natural and cultural-historical features.

Back

Examples of destination at exploration stage (Butlers life cycle)

Card 3

Front

begins to provide facilities primary or even exclusively for visitors.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

smaller, less developed pacific and Caribbean islands as well as less accessible areas of western Europe and North America

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

well defined tourist market areas, shaped in part by heavy advertising in tourist generating areas

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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