Tourism - GCSE Geography

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  • Created on: 01-06-17 22:41
Give reasons for the global increase in tourism due to having more and longer holidays.
+People have more disposable income (spare money) than they used to - so they can afford to go on more holidays. +Companies give more paid holidays which means people have more free time, so can go on holiday more.
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Give reasons for the global increase in tourism due to having more and longer holidays.
+Travel has become cheaper so more people are able to afford to go on holiday. +Holiday providers now use the internet to sell their products which makes them cheaper - more people can afford to go away.
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Give reasons for the global increase in tourism due to areas becoming more popular.
+Improvements in transport have made it quicker and easier to get to places. +Countries in more unsual tourist destinations have got better at marketing themselves. +Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism to make them attractive.
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Explain the potential of cities for the development of tourism and give examples.
People are attracted to cities because of their culture (museums), entertainment (bars) and shopping. Popular destinations include Rome, Paris, London, New York.
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Explain the potential of mountains for the development of tourism and give examples.
People are attracted to mountain areas because of the beautiful scenery and activities like walking, climbing, skiing, snowboarding. Popular destinations include the Alps, the Rockies.
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Explain the potential of coasts for the development of tourism and give examples.
People are attracted to coastal areas because of the beaches and activities like swimming, snorkelling, fishing, water skiing. Popular destinations include Spain, the Carribean, Thailand.
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Assess the economic importance of tourism to countries in the world.
Tourism creates jobs for local people which helps the economy to grow and also increases the income of other businesses that supply the tourism industry e.g. farms that supply food to hotels.
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Assess the economic importance of tourism to developing countries in contrast to developed countries in the world.
Poorer countries tend to be more dependent on the income from tourism than developed countries, such as tourism contributes 3% of the UK's GNP, whereas it is 15% of Kenya's.
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Explain the contribution of tourism to the UK economy.
In 2008, there were 32 million over sea tourists in Britain. The UK is known for its countryside, historic landmarks (Big Ben), cathedrals (Saint Pauls), palaces. In 2007 tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people
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Name the external factors on visitor numbers to the UK.
Weather, World economy, Exchange rate, Terrorism and conflict, Major events.
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Explain how weather can affect the number of visitors to the UK.
Bad weather can discourage tourists to visit the UK e.g. a really wet summer in 2007 was blamed for the decrease in oversea visitors.
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Explain how world economy can affect the number of visitors to the UK.
In times of recession (economic decline) people tend to cut back on luxuries like holidays, so fewer oversea visitors come to the UK. However more UK citizens choose to holiday in the UK.
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Explain how exchange rates can affect the number of visitors to the UK.
If the exchange rate is low compared with other currencies, then the UK is cheaper to visit to so more oversea visitors come.
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Explain how terrorism can affect the number of visitors to the UK.
Wars and terrorist threats mean people are less willing to visit affected areas. Tourism fell sharply after London bombings in 2005.
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Explain how major events can affect the number of visitors to the UK.
Large events can attract huge numbers of people, e.g. Liverpool was European Capital of Culture in 2008 which attracted 3.5 million people who had never visited the UK before.
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State the stages in the Butler tourist resort life cycle model.
Exploration, Involvement, Development, Consolidation, Stagnation, Rejuvenation or Decline.
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Describe the Exploration stage from the Butler Model and apply it to the case study of Blackpool.
Exploration is where small numbers of visitors are attracted to the area, e.g. by the scenery or culture. There aren't many tourist facilities. = Blackpool was mainly a coastal fishing village and in the 18th century it became more fashionable.
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Describe the Involvement stage from the Butler Model and apply it to the case study of Blackpool.
Involvement is where local people start providing facilities for the tourists, which attracts more visitors. = 1781 a private road was built providing better access to town, in 1846 railway was linked to Blackpool - workers from other towns could go.
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Describe the Development stage from the Butler Model and apply it to the case study of Blackpool.
Development consists of an increasing number of tourists and facilities, control over the tourism passes from locals to big companies. = Blackpool became a mass tourist destination, increase in hotels, developments e.g. North Pier (1863).
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Describe the Consolidation stage from the Butler Model and apply it to the case study of Blackpool.
Consolidation is where tourism is still a big part of the local economy, but tourist numbers are beginning to level off. = In 1912 Blackpool Illuminations (famous light show), rides/ammusements, Blackpool tower (1894), 17 million tourists per year.
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Describe the Stagnation stage from the Butler Model and apply it to the case study of Blackpool.
Stagnation is where visitor numbers have peaked, facilities are no longer as good and tourists have had a negative impact on the environment. = increase in alcohol and drugs giving Blackpool a bad reputation, increase in cheap package holidays abroad
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Describe the Rejuvenation/Decline stage from the Butler Model and apply it to the case study of Blackpool.
Rejuvination means new facilities and increase in tourists again, whereas decline is where facilities shut down and less visitors. = Blackpool rejuvenated by hosting Strictly Come Dancing, stag parties, weddings, happen any time making it versatile.
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What are the problems faced in Blackpool?
Mediterranean countries are guaranteed warmth and hot weather, erosion on Blackpool beaches, beaches are becoming run down, tourist numbers have dropped from 17 to 11 million per year, bed and breakfast prices had fallen to £10 per night.
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What are the solutions to the problems faced in Blackpool?
Beaches cleaned and facilities improved - in 2006 three of the beaches flying blue EU flags. Built groynes + sea walls to protect beach. Blackpool Illuminations extended its season into Autumn. New Pepsi Max ride. Park+ride systems, trams on coast.
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Have these strategies been a success in Blackpool?
In 2008, tourist numbers were 10 million, but by 2009 they had increased to 12 million. Now families stay for longer holidays because of the better beach access (spanish steps) and new facilities.
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Define mass tourism.
Mass tourism is when large numbers of people all go to the same place, usually on a package holiday.
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What are the advantages of mass tourism?
It brings money into the local economy, creates jobs for local people, lots of jobs means people are likely to stay in the area, improved infrastructure also benefit locals, income can be used to protect the environment, e.g. to run National Parks.
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What are the disadvantages of mass tourism?
A lot of the profit made from tourism goes to large travel companies, rather than local economy. Tourism jobs offered to locals are often badly paid. Behavior by tourists can affend locals. Destroying habitats, pollution, increase greenhouse gases.
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Using the case study of Kenya, why do tropical areas attract so many visitors?
Tribal culture (Maasai), warm climate, big 5 (rhino, lion, elephant, leopard, buffalo), beautiful scenery (savannah, beaches, coral reefs, Mombasa marine park).
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Explain the positive effects of mass tourism on the economy in Kenya.
Tourism contributes to 15% of Kenya's Gross National Product. The culture of the native Maasai tribe is preserved and they gain some money through traditional dances. In 2003, 219,000 people worked in the tourist industry.
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Explain the positive effects of mass tourism on the environment in Kenya.
Game parks like the Maasai Mara are able to conserve wildlife . 23 National parks such as Nairobi National Park and Mombassa Marine Park, which uses tourist income to protect the environment and wildife. Tourists are educated on how to protect coral.
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Explain the negative effects of mass tourism on the economy in Kenya.
Only 15% of the money earned through tourism goes to locals. Loss of tourists in 2002 when there was a terrorist attack outside Mombasa hotel killing 13 people.
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Explain the negative effects of mass tourism on the environment in Kenya.
Minibuses and 8000 tourists per day disturb animals in Maasai Mara. In Mombassa beach, coral has been damaged by tourist boat anchoring.
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Define ecotourism and explain how it contrasts with mass tourism.
Ecotourism is a type of sustainable tourism which involves wildlife or wild areas in addition to involving the community, providing jobs and protecting the environment. Whereas mass tourism is not focused on sustainability or the local people.
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Describe the environment within Chumbe Island.
It has a coral reef, which is still undamaged. Highly specialised plants that can survive without ground water, instead capturing moisture from the air. Coconut crab (largest crab on earth) and it is a Marine Protected area.
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Explain how Chumbe island contributes to sustainable developement.
Each eco bungalow collects its own fresh water supply from rain with its roof, rain is filtered and stored in underground cisterns. Water is then hand-pumped and can be used for showers and hand basins.
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Explain how Chumbe island contributes to sustainable developement.
To deal with sewage, they have composting toilets, human waste is decomposed into fertilisers. Solar powered panels on roofs, nothing is artificially illuminated - doesn't disturb nature. Solar powered torches that charge in day so you use at night.
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Explain how Chumbe island contributes to sustainable developement.
Organic soaps produced by local women in Zanzibar. Open design of the bungalows allows for natural air-conditioning. Local people are given preference for employment opportunities.
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Explain the difference between stewardship and conservation.
Conservation is the careful and planned use of places in order to manage and maintain the environment for the future, whereas stewardship is the personal responsibility for looking after the tourist environment so that it is sustainable.
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Describe the attractions of extreme environments to tourists.
Extreme environments are locations with particularly difficult climates or dangerous landscapes, where tourism has started to increase because of the nicht market demand for somewhere different with physical challenges.
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State examples of extreme environments.
Mountainous areas - The Himalayas. Deserts - The Sahara. Rainforests - The Amazon.
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Define adventure tourism.
Where small groups of people looking for risk and an adrenaline rush from sport or other dangerous activities and so travel to remote/exotic areas.
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Why is there an increased demand for adventure tourism?
= Improvements in transport have made it quicker and easier to access some of these remote destinations. = People are keen to see places like Antarctica while they have the chance, due to ice melting from global warming.
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Why is there an increased demand for adventure tourism?
Adventure tourism is expensive, but people nowadays have more disposable income. = TV programmes and advertising makes it more popular.
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An example of an extreme area is the Everest base camp in Nepal. How is it being damaged because of adventure tourism?
Some people have named it "the world's highest junkyard". It is estimated that a group of 15 trekkers create 15kg of non-biodegradable waste on a 10 day trek. Tourist lodges use 75kg of firewood per day. Cold climates make wood take 3x longer to grow
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An example of an extreme area is the Everest base camp in Nepal. How is it being damaged because of adventure tourism?
Sherpas are one of the most affluent groups of people here, but there are concerns that many have become drug addicts or married foreigners and moved abroad. Conflict has arisen as many feel Sherpas are the only group to benefit from tourism.
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How is Nepal coping to limit the damage from adventure tourism?
The Government has introduced projects such as micro-hydro schemes, reducing firewood consumption in some areas by 60%. Local people are trained as guides to help give them the skills. Between 1996-8, a 50% rise in households involved in tourism
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How is Nepal coping to limit the damage from adventure tourism?
Training courses for porters and pack animal operators increased their basic daily income by 30%.
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Card 2

Front

Give reasons for the global increase in tourism due to having more and longer holidays.

Back

+Travel has become cheaper so more people are able to afford to go on holiday. +Holiday providers now use the internet to sell their products which makes them cheaper - more people can afford to go away.

Card 3

Front

Give reasons for the global increase in tourism due to areas becoming more popular.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain the potential of cities for the development of tourism and give examples.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the potential of mountains for the development of tourism and give examples.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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