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Why is eyewitness testimony evidence trace evidence?
because it can be destroyed, lost, damaged leading to error, contaminated
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What have mistaken eyewitnesses lead too?
75% wrongful convictions, 52% wrongful DNA extract
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what is the misinformation effect
loftus 'stop' and 'giveway' sign. Speed (smashed, hit) different speeds recalled
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what is memory conformity?
one witness can influence, contaminate anothers testimony/report through source confusion, social process or informational influence
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what is source confusion?
people genuinely mistake details they recieved for details they witnessed
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what is social proccess?
need for social approval or informational influence, desire to be accurate. MOST plausible
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what happens when planting false childhood memories?
doctored photos and stories. 50% remember the false event. we can we wildly wrong about what we do and what we see- lead to false accusations
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Could this lead to false accusations
YES. in a gambling experiment where the ppt was told their partner had been cheating signed to give testimony watching the fabricated evidence. 20% signed. more powerful face to face. false exposure leads to false testimony
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What are system variables?
something the police CAN control
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what are estimator variables?
things beyond the control of the criminal justice system
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what is direct evidence>
eyewitness testimony but can lead to wrongful convictions. q
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what are variables that could influence judgement?
age, gender, intelligence, alcholohl, prior exposure, influence and indentification. witness charts, event charts, post event media, identification.
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how can a police influence testimony
through their response leads to over confidence in suspect
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What is the relative judgement strategy?
we identify the person who most closely resembles our memory relative to other members of the line up
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what does failure to tell them the perpentrator may not be in the line up lead to?
higher rates in choosing reguardless of weather the perpentrator is there or not
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where does evidence for the relative judgement strategy come from?
simultaneous vs sequential presentation
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Which is better stimulatenous or sequential line ups?
sequential line ups because the eyewitness is less able to make relative judgements. fewer false identifications
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how do you deal with distinctive features on a foil?
it is best to replicate the feature across all the foils, better than removing or concealing. cant suggest which person is a suspect, do not stand out. digitally edit. resemble suspect in age, general appearence, position in life
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what are problems with traditional line ups?
delay, limited encoded time, lighting, alchol
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describe the new method for line ups
rate the degree of match on a scale for each member. perform matching under time constraints. if no single face selected=no suspect. =decision accuracy was higher in the deadline condition. subjects more confident
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Card 2

Front

What have mistaken eyewitnesses lead too?

Back

75% wrongful convictions, 52% wrongful DNA extract

Card 3

Front

what is the misinformation effect

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is memory conformity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is source confusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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