topic 6 Ethnicity

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 11-06-13 13:21
What are victim surveys?
ask individuals to say what crimes they have been victims of. We can gain info on ethnicity and offending from such surveys when they ask the person to identify the ethnicity of offendor. e.g. black people are over represented for mugging.
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what does intra ethnic mean?
taking place within rather than between ethnic groups.e.g. in 90% of crimes where the offendor was white at least one of the other offendors was white.
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what are limitations of victim surveys?
Rely on victims memories of events, Only cover personal crimes which make up only a fifth of all crimes, exclude under 16s, exclude crimes by and against organisations so tell us nothign about ethnicity and white collar/corperate crimes.
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What are self report studies?
ask individuals to disclose their own dishonest and violent behaviours. Graham and bowling - Blacks (43%) Whites (44%) - similar rates of offending.
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Evaluation of SRS
Findings of SRS challenge the stereotype of black peopel as being morelikely than whites to offend.
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What to phillips and bowling argue about policing?
Black community has been subjected to oppressive military style policing. which has resulted in over policing of these, reflected in excessive police use of stop and search
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what do statistics on police stop and search show?
that police stop and search black britons six times more than white Britons and Asians twice as often as white Britons.
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What are the 3 possible reasons for the disproportionate use of stop and search against ethnic minority groups?
Police racism, Ethnic differences in offending and Demographic factors.
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What is meand by police racism?
philip and bowling - officers hold negative stereotypes about ethnic minorities as criminals, leading to deliberate targeting for stop and search.
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What is meant by Ethnic differences in offending?
stop and search reflects ethnic differences in levels of offending.
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What is The Mcpherson report and how did this show police racism?
the police investigation on the racist murder of the black teenager Stephen Lawrence concluded that there was racism within the Metrapolitin police.
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What is meant by Demographic factors (in terms of stop and search patterns)
Ethnic minorities are over represented in the population groups who are most likely to be stopped such as the young and unemployed. These groups are all more likely to be stopped regardless of their ethnicity
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how do left realist (lead and young) explain ethnic differences in statistics?
They argue racism has lead to marginalisation and economic exclusion of minorities who face higher levels of unemployment. Media promotes sense of relative deprivation.
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how do left realist see ethnic minorities cope with relative dep?
the formation of delinquent subcultures especially by young unemployed black males. this produces high levels of utilitarian crime - theft. because these are marginalised their frustration is liable to produce non utilitarian - violence.
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What do Lea and young argue about police racism?
we cannot explain differences between minorities in terms of police racismm. e.g. blacks have higher rate than asians. police would have to be selective in racism against blacks and not asians for racism to be cause of difference.
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how can lea and young be critisised on their view on the role of police racism?
Arrest rates for asians may be lower than blacks but not cos they are less likely to offend but because the police stereotype the 2 differently, seeing blacks as dangerous.
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How do Neo Marxism explain ethnic differences in statistics?
Gilroy - Black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes of African carribeans and Asians. These groups are no more likely to commit crime than any other, CJS acting on racist stereotypes ethnic minorities appear in greater numer of stats.
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in gilroys view why do ethnic minorities commit crime?
as a form of political resistance against a racist society.
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how do lea and young critisise gilroy?
asian crime rates are similar to whites if gilroy were right, then police are only racist towards blacks not asians.
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What did Hall suggest?
claims that the criminalization of black people began in the 1970s when police selectivley released statistics suggesting young black britons were most responsible for mugging and white britons being the likely victims.
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what did the statistics that were released on black muggers cause?
a moral panic, which effectivley labelled young african carribean population as a folk devil, or criminal threat. britain was undergoig crisis of capitalism; unemployment was high and riots threatened the dominance of the ruling class.
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how did the moral panic play a crucial ideological function for the ruling clas?
it divided the w/c by encouraging racist attitudes. this distracted w/c members from the real problem - capitalism. it introduced more aggressive policing e.g. riot squads that could be used against problem groups such as strikers/protestors.
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How have Hall et all been critisised?
they do not show how capitalist crisis led to moral panic or provide evidence that public were panicing. left realist - fears about mugging are not panicky but realistic.
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When does racist victimisation occur?
when an individual is selected as a target because of their race, ethnicity or religion. and wwas brought into greater punclic focuse with the racist murder of the black teenager Stephen Lawrence.
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How do people respond to victimisation?
ranged from situational crime prevention measures such as fireproof doors; self defence campaigns aimed at defending self from racist attacks.
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Card 2


what does intra ethnic mean?


taking place within rather than between ethnic groups.e.g. in 90% of crimes where the offendor was white at least one of the other offendors was white.

Card 3


what are limitations of victim surveys?


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Card 4


What are self report studies?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Evaluation of SRS


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