Topic 5

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Who talks about globalisation in India?
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What percentage of the population follow the religion of hinduism?
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What happened as a result of globalisation?
A wealthy, prosperous MC was created. They became increasingly religious with 30% saying this had made them more religious.
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What type of gods were they attracted to? Why?
They were attracted to WC village god's as they were more responsive to their needs.
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What motivates them to be religious?
Their ambivalence about their wealth. Conflicts with their religion and wealth meant the need to justify their wealth.
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Modern Hindusim teaches that you can be 'spiritually balanced', what does this mean?
Performing rituals that are often extravagant, to legitimate their wealth.
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What is Hindu ultra-nationalism?
The worship of Hindu Gods has become the same as worshiping India- A civil religion.
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How has Hinduism penetrated public life?
Medics use cow urine as a test for the cure for AIDS, Education uses hindu sciences such as astrology.
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What has happened to Capitalism in East Asia?
China, Singapore, South Korea Ect have developed a protestant ethic spirit of capitalism.
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Name the sociologists and describe pentacostalism in Latin America
Berger: 'functional equivalent.' to protestant ethic. Ascetic lifestyle promotes development. However, notes natural resources are also needed. E.G. North Brazil lack these so go backwards, whilst South Brazil have both and develop capitalism.
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How is Pentecostalism global and local? Who discusses this?
Lehmann: Accompanied colonisation suppressing locals and gained popularity. 'plug in' religion, worldwide message adapted to local symbols to accept their local beliefs.
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What is religious fundamentalism? Which sociologists discusses this?
Giddens: Traditionalists seeking the return to the basics of their faith. Only one true view, answer all questions, need sacred text to guide them in their lifestyle, avoid different beliefs and individuals following them.
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What is fundamentalism a reaction to? Why?
Globalisation. undermines traditional norms, allows people to have choice and creates risks.
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What is cosmopolitanism?
Embraces modernity, tolerant of other views and open to new ideas. Reflexive thinking, evidence to support arguments. Personal choice, and spirituality to discover inner-self.
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What reactions does Castell state people have to postmodernity?
Resistant identity: Defensive reactions of those who feel threatened. Fund. Project identity: Response of those who are forward thinking, embracing social change.
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Criticisms of Giddens and Castell:
Distinguish too sharply between cosmopolitanism and fundamentalism. Ignore other developments. Giddens ignores differences in fundamentalists. Haynes: Fundamentalism is a reaction to conflict.
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Who talks about Monotheism? What is it?
This is the belief in one god. Bruce believes these religions (Christianity, Judaism) are fundamentalists as they believe in one literal truth. Polytheistic are not as it is harder for them to be due to different interpretations.
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Two fundamentalists: Bruce
In the West: Reaction to change taking place within society, e.g. sexuality views opposition. In the third world: Changes from outside of society, e.g western values imposed.
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What are the two examples of cultural defence?
Iran and Poland
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How do they show cultural defence?
Poland: Under communist rule, soviet union, suppressed Catholic Church. Rallying point for opposition and lent support to groups. Iran:Western capitalist powers, banned veil and replaced calendar. Mullahs (religious leaders) led revolution.
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Who discusses the clash of civilisations?
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Globalisation caused clash, why?
Communism fell, political differences were less important. Nation-states were less significant, creating gap for religion. Contact is easier, meaning old conflicts could re-emerge.
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What are the criticisms of this?
Jackson: Orientalism- Western ideology stereotyping Eastern nations as untrustworthy. Horrie+Chippindale: Neo-conservative ideology making Islam the enemy, when minority want 'holy war'.
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What do Norris and Inglehart argue the real clash is about? Why?
Sexuality. Western and Muslim world have opposing views on sexuality. Western: 48% approve of abortion, Muslim 25%. Gender equality 82% and 55%
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What percentage of the population follow the religion of hinduism?



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What happened as a result of globalisation?


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What type of gods were they attracted to? Why?


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What motivates them to be religious?


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