Topic 5.1 - Ecology and Evolution

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5.1.1 - Define: Species
A group of organisms which can breed to produce viable and fertile offspring
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5.1.1 - Define: Habitat
An environment in which a species normally lives
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5.1.1 - Define: Community
A group of populations living and interacting in an area
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5.1.1 - Define: Population
A group of organisms of the same species in the same place in the same time frame
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5.1.1 - Define: Ecosystem
A community and its abiotic environment
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5.1.2 - Distinguish: between Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Autotrophs synthesise organic molecules from simple inorganic substances. Heterotrophs obtain organic molecules from other organisms
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5.1.3 - Distinguish: between Consumers, Detritivores, and Saprotrophs
Consumers ingest recently-killed/still living organisms. Detritivores consume non-living organic matter. Saprotrophs live in non-living organisms and secrete digestive enzymes.
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5.1.5 - Describe: a food chain
Demonstrates the linear feeding relationships between species in a community
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5.1.5 - give 3 examples of a food chain: Ocean Biome
Phytoplankton -> Zooplankton -> Sardines -> Tuna
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5.1.5 - give 3 examples of a food chain: Pond Biome
Algae -> Mosquito -> Dragonfly -> Frog
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5.1.5 - give 3 examples of a food chain: Grasslands Biome
Grass -> Grasshopper -> Rat -> Snake
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5.1.5 - Describe: Food Webs
A diagram that demonstrates how food chains are linked together to form more complex feeding relationships within a community
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5.1.6 - Define: Trophic Levels
Refers to the position of the organism along the food chain. The first trophic level is always the producer, and the last is usually a saprotroph
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5.1.7 - Deduce: The trophic level of an organism based on its position in a food chain
Trophic level = (number of arrows in sequence of organisms preceding) + 1
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5.1.8 - Construct: Food Web
Trophic Lvl 1: Algae, waterweed. Lvl 2: prawn, carp, slug, turtle, pondfly. Lvl 3: turtle, trout, kingfisher, turtle, frog. Lvl 4: Kingfisher.
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5.1.9 - State: initial energy source for most communities
LIGHT is the initial energy source for almost all communities.
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5.1.10 - Explain: The flow of energy in a food chain
Only ~10% of the energy at each level is passed on between trophic levels.
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5.1.11 - State: efficiency of energy transformations
Energy levels in transformations are never 100% efficient. ~90% of energy at each level is lost during excretion, heat loss, respiration, or consumption as uneaten food.
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5.1.12 - Explain: Energy pyramids
Graphic representations of the amount of energy passed on at each trophic level. Expressed in Kj per km^2 per day.
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5.1.13 - Explain: why nutrients do not leave the ecosystem but energy does.
Nutrients are materials required by an organism, and are constantly recycled in the form of food and excrement. Energy cannot be recycled and an ecosystem needs constant input (i.e. the sun)
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5.1.14 - State: what organisms recycle nutrients
Saprotrophic bacteria and fungi recycle nutrients. Their freeing of inorganic materials ensures a continued supply of raw material for producers
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5.1.1 - Define: Habitat


An environment in which a species normally lives

Card 3


5.1.1 - Define: Community


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Card 4


5.1.1 - Define: Population


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Card 5


5.1.1 - Define: Ecosystem


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