Topic 4 realism

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 11-06-13 11:41
What three factors do right realist see crime as the product of?
Biological differences, inadequate socialisation and the underclass, and rational choice to offend.
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how do biological differences cause crime?
Richard and hernstein - biological differences make some poeple innatley more strongly predisposed to commit crime. e.g. personality traits such as aggressivness put people at greater risk of offending.
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how does inadequate socialisation lead to crime
Murray - growing underclass who have deviant behaviour and fail to socialise children properly. underclass is growing due to welfare dependancy
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how does rational choice lead to crime?
assumes individuals have free will. Clarke - decidion to commit crime is a decision based on calculation of likely consequences. if the rewards of crim outweigh the costs then people more likely to offend.
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how would rational choice explain the current increase in crime?
argued currently percieved cost of crime is low. e.g. there is often little risk of being caught and punishments are lenient.
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who do right realists think we should tackle crime?
they seek to devise practical measures to make crime less attractive. their main focus is on control, containment and punishment of offendors rather than eliminating the underling cause of their offending or rehabilitating them.
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who wrote the article broken windowns and what was it about?
Wilson and Kelling - it is essential to maintain the orderly character of neighbourhoods to prevent crime taking hold. any sign of deterioration such as graffiti must be dealt with immediatley.
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what are examples of how right realists tackle crime?
'broken windows'. 'Zero tolerance' policy; role of police shoule be to control streets so citizens feel safe. crime prevention strategies should reduce rewards and increase costs of crime. e..g. 'target hardening' greater use of prison.
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Critisisms of right realism?
ignore wider causes such as poverty, overstates offendors rationality and how they make cost benefit calculations - doesn't explain violent crime. ignores coperate crime
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who is the main socioogist for left realism?
Jock young.
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which 2 factors did left realism develop as a result of?
the need to take rising crime rate seriously and produce practical solutions. The influence of right realism on government policy.
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why do left realist argue Traditional marxist have not taken crime seriously?
They focus on crimes of the powerful such as corperate crime. Left realist agree this is important but argue it neglects working class crime and its affects.
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why do left realist argue neo marxist have not taken crime seriouslyy?
They romanticise working class criminals as robin hoods stealing from rich in an act of political resistance to capitalism. Left realism point out w/c criminals mostly victimise other working class people.
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why do left realist argue labelling theorist do not take crime seriously?
see working class criminals as the victims of discriminatory labelling by social control agents. left realists argue this approach neglects real victims - w/c people who suffer at the hands of criminals.
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Lea and Young see three related cause of crime?
Relative depravation, Subcluture and marginalisation.
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How does Relative depravation lead to crime?
how deprived someone feels in relation to others. This can lead to crime when people feel resentment that others have more than them and resort to crime to obtain what they feel entitled too.
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What combined with relative deprivation causes crime?
Young - 'The lethal combination is relative depravation and individualism'. individualism is a concern with the self and ones individual rights. it causes crime by encouraging the pursuit of self interest at the expense of others.
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How do subcultures lead to crime?
subculture is a groups collective solution to relative depravation. different groups may produce different subcultural solutions for this. e.g. some may turn to crime to close the 'deprevation gap' while others may turn to religion.
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how does marginalisation lead to crime?
unemployed youth are marginalised. they have no organisation to represent themand no clear goals, just sense of resentment and frustration. being powerless to use political means they express frustration through crime such as violence and rioting
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what stage does Young argue we are now living in?
Late modernity.
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growing contrast between cultural inclusion and economic inclusion:
Media saturated late modern society pormotes cultural inclusion:even poor have access to media. Greater emphasis on lesiure leads to higher expectation for the good life. the poor are excluded from oppetuneties to gain 'glittering prizes of wealth'
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How do left realist argue we should tackle crime?
improve policing and control and deal with deeper structual causes of crime.
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How will policing and control tackle crime?
public must become more involved in determining the polices priorities and style of policing. polcie need to improve their relationship with communities by spending more time investigating crime
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why is it bad that the public are not presenting police with as much info?
police are losing public support. as result flow of info dries up and police rely on military policing such as random stop and search. this alienates communities who see police as targeting local youth resulting in viscious circle.
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how will tackling the structual causes prevent crime?
the causes of crime lie in unequal structure of society and major social changes are needed. e.g. we must tackle discrimination, provide jobs, improve housing and stop stereotyping.
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how have left realism influenced government policy?
For example new labours frimer approach to policing of hate crimes, sexual assault, deomestic violence along with introduction of ASBOs echoes left realist concerns to protect vulnerable groups from crime.
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Critisisms of left realism
Relative depravation cannot fully explain crime because not all those who experience it commit crime.they use quantatative data - cannot explain victims motives. focuses on high crime areas giving unrepresentitive view. fails to explain corperate cri
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compare left and right realism?
both left and right see crime as a real problem. on the other hand right are neo conservative while left are reformist socialists.right blame lack of selfcontrol, while left blame structual inequalities (deprevation)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


how do biological differences cause crime?


Richard and hernstein - biological differences make some poeple innatley more strongly predisposed to commit crime. e.g. personality traits such as aggressivness put people at greater risk of offending.

Card 3


how does inadequate socialisation lead to crime


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


how does rational choice lead to crime?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how would rational choice explain the current increase in crime?


Preview of the front of card 5
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This is fantastic revcall resources which make use of very valid questions to test your understanding of the realist perspectives of crime and deviance. There is a wide range of knowledge being tested and the cards are easy to use and can easily be printed and turned into falshcards.


Alot of spelling mistakes

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