Topic 3

HideShow resource information
Prokaryotic
cells without a nuclei and organelles
1 of 57
Eukaryotic
Cells with a nucleus containing DNA
2 of 57
Pili
protein tubes that allow prokaryotes to cling to substances
3 of 57
Flagellum
thread-like appendage that allows prokaryotes to move
4 of 57
Centrioles
cylinders in animals that produce spindles
5 of 57
Lysosome
Sac containing digestive enzymes
6 of 57
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
ER with no ribosomes. Produces lipids and steriods
7 of 57
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
ER with ribosomes. Where proteins are made
8 of 57
Nucleolus
dense body in the nucleus where ribsomes are made
9 of 57
Golgi apparatus
flattened sacs containing proteins
10 of 57
Sperm
male gamete- containing a haploid nucleus
11 of 57
Ovum (egg)
female gamete - containing a haploid nucleus
12 of 57
Gametes
sex cellls - contain haploid nucleus and fuse to create a zygote
13 of 57
Acrosome
specialised lysosomes found in sperm
14 of 57
Zona Pellucida
the jelly-like layer surrounding the egg
15 of 57
Mitosis
dividing mechanism of body cells, all daughter cells are identical copies
16 of 57
Diploid
the full number of chromosomes. Contains two sets of chromosomes
17 of 57
Meiosis
division that causes half the normal number of chromosomes to occur in a cell
18 of 57
Haploid
nucleus containing half the normal number of chromosomes
19 of 57
Independent assortment
where the line up of chromosomes during meiosis causes variation
20 of 57
Crossing Over
where chromosomes cross, break, and rejoin to cause variation
21 of 57
Cromatids
separate sides of the chromosome
22 of 57
Chiasma
a place where the chromosomes cross
23 of 57
chiasmata
several places where chromosomes cross
24 of 57
fertilisation
joining of two haploid nuclei to form a zygote
25 of 57
zygote
a cell that comprises of a fused egg and sperm
26 of 57
Embryo
a zygote that has begun to develop into offspring
27 of 57
Interphase
stage between cytoplasmic division and mitosis
28 of 57
S
middle stage of interphase where DNA is replicated
29 of 57
G1
First stage of interphase where many cell organelles are produced
30 of 57
G2
Last stag of interphase, cell prepares to undergo mitosis
31 of 57
cytoplasmic division
where the cytoplasm divides, splitting the cells
32 of 57
prophase
where the chromosomes condense and shorten
33 of 57
metaphase
the chromosomes line up in the middle and spindles attach at the centromere
34 of 57
anaphase
the chromosomes are pulled to either side of the cell
35 of 57
telophase
the chromosomes unravel and the nucleic envelope reforms
36 of 57
centromere
where two chromosomes join at the centre
37 of 57
totipotent
where a cell can specialise into any cell in the body
38 of 57
blastocyst
a hollow ball of cells at the start of embryonic development
39 of 57
placenta
womb lining made from the outer blastocyst layer
40 of 57
Pluripotent
where cell can become most types of cells
41 of 57
multipotent
where a cell can become a few cells
42 of 57
differentiation
where a stem cell becomes specialised
43 of 57
Theraputic cloning
where a somatic diploid cell has its nucleus fused with an Ovum and new tissue can be developed from it
44 of 57
Beta-galactosidase
an enzyme produced by bacteria to break down lactose
45 of 57
Phenotype
physical characteristic based on genetic makeup
46 of 57
Genotype
DNA characteristic (alleles)
47 of 57
discontinuous variation
characteristics controlled by a single loci (discrete)
48 of 57
continuous variation
characteristic affected by several loci and the environment
49 of 57
Polygenic
characteristic controlled by several genes
50 of 57
multifactoral
where several genes and the environment affect a characteristic
51 of 57
melanin
dark pigment found in skin and hair
52 of 57
melanocyte - stimulating hormone
hormone that activates melanocytes to produce melanin
53 of 57
Tyrosinase
Enzymes used to make melanin.
54 of 57
Tumour
growth caused by occurrences when cell multiplication is faster than cell death
55 of 57
Onocogenes
codes for proteins that stimulate the stages of the cell cycle
56 of 57
Tumour suppressor genes
produce protein that stop the cell cycle i.e. to hold the cell in G1 phase
57 of 57

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Cells with a nucleus containing DNA

Back

Eukaryotic

Card 3

Front

protein tubes that allow prokaryotes to cling to substances

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

thread-like appendage that allows prokaryotes to move

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

cylinders in animals that produce spindles

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all word definitions resources »