Topic 2 glossary

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Cystic Fibrosis
a genetic disease affecting the absorbtion & diffusion of water into cells
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Mucus
Slimy fluid secreted by cells to act as a lubricant or protective layer
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Cilia
hair-like projections from epithelial cells- move substances like mucus in the lungs
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Epithelial cells
tissue on the surface of animals. Also lines the cavaties of organs
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Basement membrane
The membrane that holds epithelial cells in their place
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Squamous epithelium
lining of thin, flat cells fitted together like crazy paving
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Columnar epithelium
cells extending up from the basement membrane to increase surface area
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Pathogens
harmful microorganisms that cause disease
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Diffusion
movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration (passive)
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Concentration gradient
occurs when a substance occurs at a higher concentration in one place than another
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Surface area to volume ratio
Calculated by dividing total surface area over volume. Indication of heat loss, diffusion pathways etc.
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Gas exchange surface
area where O2 and CO2 are exchanged
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Fick's law
rate of diffusion is inversly proportional to the thickness of the gas exchange surface
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Primary structure
The first structure of a protein - amino acid chains
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Secondary structure
Second structure- where chains begin to fold into a-helixes or b-pleated sheets
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Tertiary structure
Where hydrophobic side chains and other bond interactions cause the protein to become 3D
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Quaternary structure
Where multiple proteins come together
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Polar
Where opposite ends of a molecule have opposite charges
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Hydrophillic
Polar molecules that dissolve in water
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Hydrophobic
Non-polar molecules that don't dissolve in water
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Bilayer
Basic structure of a cell membrane- 2 layers of phospholipids
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Phospholipid
Lipid with phospherous attached
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Glycoprotein
Proteins with polysaccharides attached
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Glycolipid
Lipid with polysaccharide attached
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Fluid Mosaic Model
Model that explains the structure of the cell membrane
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Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion with the aid of a channel or carrier protein
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Channel Protein
Water filled protein that allows hydrophillic molecules to enter the cell
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Carrier Protein
protein that changes shape to assist the movement of molecules into and out of cells
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Passive transport
Transport that requires no energy
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ATP
Energy transfer molecule
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Exocytosis
Process whereby bulk substances are carried out of the cell
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Endocytosis
Process whereby bulk substances are carried into the cell
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CFTR protein
the protein that controls CL ions leaving the cell
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Catalyst
substance that increases the rate of reaction without being used up itself
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Active Site
the point on an enzyme where a molecule will break up or be joined
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Substrate
The substance that binds to the active site
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Enzyme-substrate complex
Term given to when the substrate binds to the active site
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Lock and Key theory
that each enzyme will only catalyze 1 reaction due to its unique shape
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Induced fit theory
that the active site will change slightly to create a better fit around the substrate
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Activation energy
Energy required to start a reaction of its own accord
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Mutation
a change in the genetic material of a cell
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Gene
a piece of DNA which has a specific sequence of bases that code for a protein
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Genome
All of the DNA in a cell
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DNA
the molecule that forms the genetic material of all living organisms
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Deoxyribose
a five carbon sugar in a nucleotide
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Phosphate group
PO4
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Organic Base
the portion of the nucleotide that codes for a protein
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Adenine
a nucleotide base
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Cytosine
a nucleotide base
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Guanine
a nucleotide base
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Thymine
a nucleotide base
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Triplet code
sequence of bases that relate to one amino acid
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RNA
a copy molecule of the DNA for one gene
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Ribose
five carbon sugar that has one more base than deoxyribose
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Uracil
replacement of thymine on RNA
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mRNA
sequence from the template strand of DNA
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tRNA
molecule carrying the amino acid and anti-codon
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rRNA
this is what makes up ribosomes (along with various proteins
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Transcription
action of copying DNA into RNA
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template strand
opposite side of sense strand, used to transcription to obtain a copy of the desired gene
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Codon
3 base code on mRNA that contains the bases to match up to an amino acid
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Nuclear envelope
two membranes surrounding the nucleus
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Translation
action of taking mRNA and turning it into a protein
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Ribosomes
organelles in cells that produce proteins from mRNA
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Anti-codon
3 bases that relate to a relevant codon on the mRNA strand
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Replication
action of copying DNA
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Semi- conservative replication
where 1 strand of old DNA splits to create 2 new strands
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Sickle Cell anaemia
disorder where the haemaglobin is less soluble and so cells are distorted
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Locus
position of a gene on both chromosomes
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Homologous chromosomes
where 1 chromosome in a pair comes from the mother and the other from the father
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alleles
forms of a gene that may have different effects
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Carrier
someone with 1 dominant and 1 recessive. They are not affected by the disease
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Genotype
description of the type of alleles that an organism has
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Homozygous
where you have 2 of the same type of alleles
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Heterozygous
where you have different alleles
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Phenotype
the observable affect of the gene
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Dominant allele
an allele that will always force the pheontype
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recessive allele
a genotype that will only force the phenotype when you have two recessive genes
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Monohybrid inheritance
where a characteristic is determined by a single gene
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Thalassemia
caused by recessive alleles, no or faulty haemaglobin is produced
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albinism
recessive allele, results in no pigment being produced (melanin)
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Gene therapy
treatment where you alter someones genetic makeup
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Plasmid
ring of DNA in a bacteria cell
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Liposomes
sphere of phospholipids used in gene therapy
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Germ line therapy
treatment where new genes are inserted into germ cells to be passed to offspring
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Genetic testing
allows for the identification of cells with a particular DNA sequence
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Amnioscentesis
Inserting a needle into the amniotic fluid to collect cells
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Moral
beliefs about what is right and wrong
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Rights
Things that must be allowed/granted
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Duties
Things that we ought to do
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Utilitarianism
framework that maximizes the good in the world
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Informed consent
where you agree to something knowing all of the consequences
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Autonomy
Ability to make your own decisions
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Virtues
Good qualities in a person
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Justice
Ethical principle based on things like fair distribution of resources
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Card 2

Front

Slimy fluid secreted by cells to act as a lubricant or protective layer

Back

Mucus

Card 3

Front

hair-like projections from epithelial cells- move substances like mucus in the lungs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

tissue on the surface of animals. Also lines the cavaties of organs

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The membrane that holds epithelial cells in their place

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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