Topic 1: Systems and Models

Static equilibrium
closed, non-living systems no change over time disturbances creates a new different equilibrium
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Steady-State Equilibrium
open, living systems no long-term changes but many short term changes The overall balance of the system remains stavle almost all open systems in nature
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Storages
matter/energy remain/stored in the system
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Negative Feedback
Change in the ecosystems which offsets or neutralizes changes and returns the systems to its origional state or equilibrium
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matter vs energy flows
FLOW- is movement through or within a system energy flows THROUGH the system matter CYCLES continuously WITHIN the system
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First Law of Thermodynamics & example
aka law of conservation of energy Energy is neither created nor destroyed total energy remains constant the form of energy can change (ex. Potential to electrical energy)
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abiotic
Include all the non-living things in an ecosystem (example: light, temperature, and soil composition).
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Trophic level
position of the organism in a food chain first trophic level are producers secondary trophic level are primary consumers
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Apply the systems concept on a range of scales
range must include a small-scale ecosystem, a large ecosystem such as a biome, and Gaia as an example of a global ecosystem
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2 Major components of a system (examples)
elements- measurable things the can be linked together (trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, insects...) Processes- what happens to the elements, or WHAT THE ELEMENTS DO- RELATIONS, or FUNCTIONS (growth, mortality,decomposition)
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Woodland food chain
Oak tree>wood mouse>viper> Kestrel
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terrestrial food chain
Wheat>bug>frog>snake
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Marine food chain example
phytoplankton>krill>jellyfish>sea turtle
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biotic
An environmental factor related to or produced by living organisms.
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transformations
change the form of energy or matter
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What do do when given a "Modeling systems" question
identifying inputs, outputs, and stock within an ecosystem block arrows to show the direction of flow size of arrow should reflect magnitude of that flow should include adjecent systems were inputs come from and outputs go
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Define and explain the principles of positive and negative feedback
natural systems regulate themselves thorough feedback systems feedback always involves time lags feedback mechanisms either change a system to a new state or return it to the original state after a disturbance
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Define isolated system
exchange neither energy nor matter with their surroundings (rare in nature usially only founf in controlled lab experiments)
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Define closed system
Exchange energy but not matter with their surroundings (water cycle- energy from sun is imported but water stays on earth)
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Define Open System
exchange energy and matter with their surroundings (ie human body)
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Define System
a system is defined as "an assemblage of parts and their relationship forming a functioning entirety or whole"
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Nested Systems (hierarchies)
a smaller systems of subsystems within larger systems, which may in turn bed in larger systems- higher up in the hierarchy had greater complexity (ex: fish>coral reef ecosystem>Ocean?Earth>solar system)
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Positive feedback
change in the state of a system causes even greater changes so that it moves further and further from the origional equilibrium
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Outline a system
All systems have inputs outputs flows storages of matter/energy processes (transfers and transformations) boundaries
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Second Law Thermodynamics ( _?__ increases)
ENTROPY (spreading out disorganizations) increases over time energy transformations are not 100% efficient, so the availability of energy diminishes
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Transfers
do not change the form of energy or matter movement of matter or energy from one place to another
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

open, living systems no long-term changes but many short term changes The overall balance of the system remains stavle almost all open systems in nature

Back

Steady-State Equilibrium

Card 3

Front

matter/energy remain/stored in the system

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Change in the ecosystems which offsets or neutralizes changes and returns the systems to its origional state or equilibrium

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

FLOW- is movement through or within a system energy flows THROUGH the system matter CYCLES continuously WITHIN the system

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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