topic 1 - restless earth

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  • Created by: xxSonia
  • Created on: 08-04-14 10:38
Oceanic crust
Thin but dense. Made out of Basalt, no crystals as cools down quickly. Found under oceanes
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Continental crust
Known as land, Thick but less dense. Made out of granite therefore contains crystals and cools slowly
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How do convection currents move plate tetonics?
1. Occurs in mantle, heat of core. 2. Created by pressure of overlying rocks/radioactive decay in core and mantle 3. Heat rises from core , creates convection currents in liquid outer core and mantle 4. Move tectonic plates above.
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Constructive Plate Boundary
Where 2 continental plates are moving apart, new oceanic crust is constantly forming. Magma is forced through the earth's surface due to convection currents from mantle.
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Constructive plate boundary - Location
Iceland,Mid Atlantic Ridge. Small Earthquakes formed from friction- volcanoes aren't very explosive.
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Conservative plate boundary
Continental plates are sliding past each other. No plate is created or destroyed. Sliding is not smooth, creates friction and stress builds up in crustal rocks
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Conservative plate boundary - location
San Andreas Fault, destructive earthquakes, small earth tremors and no volcanoes.
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Destructive plate boundary
Two plate are moving together. The oceanic plate is dragged downwards to the sea bed, as it is denser - subduction. the collision of the 2 plates buckles the leading edge of the continental crust, forming fold mountains.
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How are earthquakes formed with destructive plate boundary?
The sinking oceanic plate can stick to the continental plate, therefore causing pressure to build up against friction. Eventually a series of earthquakes are released.
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Destructive plate boundary -location
Andes Mountains/ Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate to form the Himalayas.
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Basaltic magma
- low gas content - constructive plate margins -low silica - high temperatures -little explosive activity -fluid lava flow
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Andesitic magma
- high gas content - low temperature - high silica - destructive plate margin - less fluid lava
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Granite magma
- low temperature - high silica - very viscous and sticky - become igneous rocks
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Shield Volcanoes
- Constructive plate boundary -Basaltic Magma, high temperature , low gas content. Lava is runny so it flows quite away before it cools - produces wide cones with shallow sides.- Mid Atlantic Ridge
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Composite Volcano
- Destructive plate - Andesitic magma - low temperature - high gas content/silica - Very viscous therefore does not travel far before it cools down and solidifies. Steep sides. Mount Fuji, Japan
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Montserrat, Chances peak Volcanic Eruption - Primary Impacts
- Pyroclastic flows killed 23 people. - destroyed 7 villages - 3 metres of ash -Gas marks
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Montserrat, Chances peak Volcanic Eruption - Secondary Impacts
- Large number of people living on makeshift shelters - 5000 people were evacuated -Large area of farmland was destroyed - Respiratory diseases - Tourist Industry collapsed
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Responses - Shorterm
- Boats used to evacuate - 17 million UK gov - Food,Aid Charities -Water Purification
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Responses- Longterm
- MVO: Monserrat Volcano Observatory -Risk Assessment -Temporary Building - Temporary Schools
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Compare the long term and short term responses?
*refer to previous points
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Sakurajima Volcano responses - Short term
- Government repair damage -Concrete lahar channels divert dangerous flows -Concrete Shelters
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Sakurajima Volcano responses- Long term
-Ensure good transport links -Detailed planning to ensure those evacuate from damage - Maintained roads
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how to predict volcanoes?
Warning systems, Aircraft, bore holes, tilt metres
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Kashmir Earthquake - Primary Impacts
- Buildings collapse - Windows Shatter - 3.3m homes destroyed - 79,000 people died - bridges toppled over, roads cracked
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Kashmir Earthquake - Secondary Impacts
- Fires, broken gas pipes - Diseases - Sewage pipe burst - Contamination -Pneumonia - Tents
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Response and Management - Short term
- International Aid - Army - Border between India and Pakistan opened - Local people help
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Response and Management - Long term
- Buildings reinforced - Re established water supplies - Built homes made out of corrugated tin
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ChristChurch Earthquake - Primary Impacts
- 181 people killed -200 people injured -100 km of water and sewage - 50% central city buildings damaged - Liquefaction - 80% no electricity
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ChristChurch Earthquake - Secondary Impacts
- Businesses out of jobs - No income - Schools shared classrooms - Emergency services, difficult to travel
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Response and management - Short term
- Sanitation - Vulnerable people - International Aid
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Response and management - Longterm
- 80% cleared liquefaction - Water sewage restored - Roads and paths repaired - Temporary Housing
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Hazard Resistant Design - Developing World
China: - Concrete ring ties to walls for foundations - Walls made out of mud and straw between wooden slats - Light weight thatch roof, little damage
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Hazard Resistant Design - Developed World
Japan: - Deep foundation to prevent collapsing - Strong double glazed windows - Damper in a the roof acts like a pendulum to reduce swaying
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Known as land, Thick but less dense. Made out of granite therefore contains crystals and cools slowly

Back

Continental crust

Card 3

Front

1. Occurs in mantle, heat of core. 2. Created by pressure of overlying rocks/radioactive decay in core and mantle 3. Heat rises from core , creates convection currents in liquid outer core and mantle 4. Move tectonic plates above.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where 2 continental plates are moving apart, new oceanic crust is constantly forming. Magma is forced through the earth's surface due to convection currents from mantle.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Iceland,Mid Atlantic Ridge. Small Earthquakes formed from friction- volcanoes aren't very explosive.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

luc.dal55

tanks b x

julianyoung

nice

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