Topic 1 Biology Key Terms

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Cardiovascular Disease
a type of disease affecting the heart or blood
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Coronary Heart Disease
disease affecting the coronary arteries
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Stroke
when a blood vessel in the brain bursts or is blocked, damage will occur
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Arteries
Muscular vessels coming away from the heart
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Capillaries
One cell wide vessels where diffusion allows substances to enter neighboring cells
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Veins
Valved vessels returning blood to the heart
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Plasma
Straw coloured liquid in the blood into which substances will dissolve
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Hydrogen Bonding
Strongest inter-molecular bonding, occurs between positive hydrogen and negative oxygen
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Hydrophillic
Polar substances that will mix with water "water loving"
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Hydrophobic
Non-Polar substances that won't mix with water "water hating"
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Collagen
fibrous protein that gives strength to walls of blood vessels
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Systole
where the heart contracts and blood is forced into the arteries
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Diastole
When the heart relaxes and the atria fill with blood
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Coronary Arteries
Arteries supplying the heart muscle with blood
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Cardiac Cycle
one complete cycle of filling and pumping (a heartbeat)
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Atrioventricular valves
Valves between the atrium and ventricles
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Ventricle
Large chamber between the atrium and artery. Very muscular
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Semilunar Valve
Valves preventing backflow between the arteries and ventricles
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Atherosclerosis
Disease process leading to coronary heart disease
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Thrombosis
Where an artery is blocked by a blood clot
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Myocardial Infarction
(Heart attack) Where blood ceases to flow to the heart and tissue damage occurs
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Cholesterol
Type of lipid that can be converted into multiple hormones (two types)
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Atheroma
Damage or disease to the arteries
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Plaque
Build up of foreign matter in the body
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Platelets
Cell fragments that clot the blood and assist healing
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Prothrombin
Inactive form of Thrombin
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Thrombin
enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
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fibrinogen
inactive, soluble form of fibrin
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fibrin
stringy, insoluble preotein that forms a mesh over wounds, trapping red blood cells and so causing a clot
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Angina
pain in chest when the heart does not receive enough oxygen
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Causation
a change in 1 variable results in a change in another variable
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hypertension
high blood pressure when someone is at rest
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Systolic Pressure
pressure when the ventricles are contracting
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Diastolic Pressure
pressure when the heart is at rest
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Oedema
Swelling caused by the accumulation of tissue fluid
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Tissue Fluid
fluid surrounding cells, into which substances can diffuse to supply cells with nutrients
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Carbohydrates
substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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Lipids
fats, don't dissolve in water but do in alcohols
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Proteins
Long chains of amino acids
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Monosaccharide
single sugar unit
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Disaccharide
2 sugar units joined by glycosidic links
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Polysaccharide
multiple sugar units joined by glycosidic links (may be branched)
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condensation reaction
a joining reaction whereby two substances join to release water
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hydrolysis
a substance is split into two using water
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basal metabolic rate
basic metabolic rate at rest (but not sleeping)
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Obesity
where a person is severely overweight with serious health issues
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Body Mass Index
calculated obesity level. (takes into account height and weight)
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Waist to hip ratio
measurement of fat around the hips
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Insulin
hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar levels
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High Density Lipoproteins
cholesterol that carries excess fat to the liver to be broken down
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Low density Lipoproteins
cholesterol that carries fat into and out of cells
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

disease affecting the coronary arteries

Back

Coronary Heart Disease

Card 3

Front

when a blood vessel in the brain bursts or is blocked, damage will occur

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Muscular vessels coming away from the heart

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

One cell wide vessels where diffusion allows substances to enter neighboring cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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