Topic 1

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Diffusion
The free movement of particles, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, down a concentration gradient.
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Osmosis
The movement of water molecules, along a concentration gradient, across a partially permeable membrane.
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Active Transport
The movement of molecules, against a concentration gradient, using energy in the form of ATP.
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Surface area to volume ratio
The amount of surface area of an organism compared to its volume.
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Dipole nature of water
The separation of positive and negative charges in the water molecule (hydrogen is delta positive and water is delta negative)
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Hydrogen bonds
The positive charge of a hydrogen and the negative of an oxygen form an electrostatic attraction
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Plasma
Main component of the blood, contains dissolved substances that are to be transported by the blood.
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Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Carries oxygen via haemoglobin.
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Leucocytes (white blood cells)
Defend the body against infection.
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Carbaminohaemoglobin
The product of Carbon Dioxide in the plasma binding with haemoglobin.
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Thromboplastin
An enzyme which starts the cascade of events to form a blood clot by catalysing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
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Thrombin
Enzyme that catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
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Fibrin
Mesh of fibres that traps platelets and red blood cells, forming a blood clot.
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Oxygenated Blood
Oxygen-rich blood that goes from the lungs, to the heart, to the rest of the body.
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Deoxygenated Blood
Blood that has given up oxygen to the somatic cells, going from the body, to the heart, to the lungs.
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Arteries
Carries blood away from the heart towards the rest of the body.
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Capillaries
Vessels that spread throughout the tissues of the body
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Veins
Carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
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Inferior vena cava
Collects blood that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide from the lower parts of the body, and takes it to the right atrium.
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Superior vena cava
Collects blood from the head, neck, arms and chest, and takes it to the right atrium.
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Atria
Upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the great veins.
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Atrioventricular valves
Separates the atria and ventricles, and stops the back flow of the blood back into the atria.
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Ventricles
Lower chambers of the heart that are filled up with blood due to high pressure in the atria.
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Semi-lunar valves
Within the walls of the arteries encouraging blood flow out of the heart and preventing back flow.
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Atrial Systole
The contraction of the atria walls, to push the blood into the ventricles.
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Ventricle Systole
The contraction of the ventricle walls, sending the blood to the lungs (via the pulmonary artery) or the rest of the body (via the
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Diastole
State of relaxation, where the atria fill up with blood.
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Electrocardiogram (ECG)
A diagram recording the electrical activity in the heart.
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Hypertension
High blood pressure.
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Hypotension
Low blood pressure.
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Artherosclerosis
A build up of plaque in the artery wall, restricting the lumen.
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Artheroma
A fatty deposit on the endothelial lining of the artery.
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Monosaccharide
Simple sugar, with a general formula of (CH2O)n
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Polysaccharide
A long chain of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds.
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Condensation reaction
The formation of a glycosidic bond between two monomers by removing a water molecule.
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Hydrolysis
The breaking of a glycosidic bond between two monomers by adding a water molecule.
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Amylose
A form of starch which is an unbranched polymer chain of alpha-glucose, and is in the form of a spiral.
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Amylopectin
A form of starch which is a long branched chain of alpha-glucose.
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Glycogen
Carbohydrate energy store found in animals.
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Saturated fats
A fatty acid chain where each carbon molecule is 'saturated' or binds to a hydrogen.
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Unsaturated fats
A fatty acid chain where there are double bonds between some carbon atoms, and so hydrogen cannot bond to every carbon.
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Esterification
The process of forming an ester bond by a condensation reaction, e.g. between a glycerol and fatty acids
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Amino Acid
Units that form peptide bonds between them, resulting in a polypeptide chain.
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Primary protein structure
A long polypeptide chain of amino acids held together via peptide bonds.
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Secondary protein structure
Repeating pattern in the peptide chain structure, e.g. alpha-helix.
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Tertiary protein structure
Three-dimensional folding of the secondary structure.
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Quaternary protein structure
Three-dimensional arrangement of many tertiary structures.
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Hydrogen bonds (protein synthesis)
Formed between amino acids forming secondary protein structures.
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Sulfur bridges (protein synthesis)
Formed between two cysteine or methionine molecules, and hold folded polypeptide chains in placer.
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Ionic bonds (protein synthesis)
Formed between amino acid side chains.
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Antihypersensitives
Drugs that reduce blood pressure.
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Diureties
Increases the volume of urine produced to get rid of excess fluids and salts so that the blood volume decreases, resulting in a lower blood pressure.
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Beta blockers
Blocks the response of the heart to hormones e.g. adrenaline, which increase the heart rate, so decrease the blood pressure by decreasing the heart rate.
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Sympathetic nerve inhibitors
Inhibits nerves that stimulate the arteries to constrict, keeping them dilated more often.
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Statins
Drugs that lower the level of cholesterol in your blood, and improve the balance of LDLs and HDLs.
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Plant stanols and sterols
Reduce the amount of cholesterol absorbed into the blood.
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Anticoagulants
Interfere with prothrombin synthesis, preventing the blood from clotting.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The movement of water molecules, along a concentration gradient, across a partially permeable membrane.

Back

Osmosis

Card 3

Front

The movement of molecules, against a concentration gradient, using energy in the form of ATP.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The amount of surface area of an organism compared to its volume.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The separation of positive and negative charges in the water molecule (hydrogen is delta positive and water is delta negative)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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