Topic B3:Organism Level Systems; Definitions

  • Created by: MiriamL
  • Created on: 08-07-20 09:02
Nervous system
Detects changes in your environment and responds with appropriate reactions
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Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
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Sense organs
Contain receptor cells that respond to light/sound
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Sensory neurones
Carry electrical impulses from receptor cells to CNS
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Relay neurones
Only found within CNS. Carry nerve impulses from sensory neurones to motor neurones
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Motor neurones
Carry nerve impulses from the CNS to effectors
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Automatic, involuntary, rapid responses to a stimulus. They miss out the brain and are faster than normal reflexes. Often happen when their is potential danger generally prevent harm occuring to the body.
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transparent coating on from of the eye. protects the eye and refracts light entering
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Central hole in irirs. Allows light to enter eye
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Coloured ring of muscle tissue, alters pupil size by contracting and relaxing
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Transparent and bioconcave, focuses light clearly on the retina
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Cilary body
Ring of muscle tissue alters shape of lens
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Suspensory ligaments
Ligament tissue that connects ciliary muscle to lens
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Optic nerve
Nervous tissue that carries nerve impulses to the brain
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Short sightedness
Can see near objects clearly distance objects blurry, image is formed short of the rettina, the lens bends too much or eyeball is too long
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Long sightedness
Can't see near objects clearly, distance objects clear, caused by lens that is too weak, doesnt refract light ebough or eyeball is too short
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In the retina, respond to lowe-level light conditions - black nad white vision/night vision
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COlour vision, respond to red, green and blue light
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Red-green coloured blindness
Most common. Genetic, most common in males
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Superior. Controld complex behsvours such as learning, memory personality and conscius thought
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Prosterior inferior to cerebrum. Controls posture, balance and involuntary movements
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Inferior (brain stem) Controls automatic actions such as heart rate and breathing rate
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Midbrain regualtes temperature and water balance
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Pituitary gland
Raindrop, inferior to hypothalmus. stores abd releases hormones that regulate many body function
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Central nervous system and peripheral nervous sytem. Two structures on the nerovus system
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Brain and spinal cord
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all neurones that connect the cns to the rest of the body
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Spinal cord
31 pairs of nerves ech containing nerve tissue in a 1.5 cenetimetre diameter
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A procedure to remove part of the skull to reveal the brain
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Chemical messengers secreted into blood that regulate the function of body processes that need constant adjustment
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Endocrine gland
Where a certain type of hormone is made
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Target organ
Orngans that contain specific cells in which hormones cause a response
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Keeping body conditions constant
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Endocrine system
Endocrine glands and their hormones
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Regulates the bodys metabolic rate,
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Necessary in diet to produce thyroxine
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Negative feedback
Type of control used in homeostasis
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Menstrual cycle
Monthly cycle that prepares a woman's body for pregnanacy.
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Follocile-stimulation hormone. Secreted by pituitary gland, travels to ovries, causes and egg to mature, stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen
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Luteinising hormone. Ovulation is triggered when its levels reach a peak
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Prevents pregnancy
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Barrier methods
prevent sperm contacting eggs
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hormonal methods
use hormones to disrupt the female reproductive cycle
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Growing towards the light
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Positive tropism
plant grows towards a stimulus
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growing in direction of gravity
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Plant hormones that enables aplant to grow towards or away from a stimulus. Made in cells near the tips of plant shoorts/roots
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Stimulste growth by causing cell elongation. Help regulate fruit development
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causes ripening by convertiong starch to sugar. Exists as gas
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promote growth, especially stem elongation. Ends dormancy of seeds and buds
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Body narrows blood vessels supplying extremeties to increase blood flow and waarmth to vital organs. Your tissue fluid freezes and finger and toes drop off
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Thermoregulatory centre
Responsible for regulation body temperature
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Thermoregulatory centre
Responsible for regulating body temperature
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Blood vessels widening
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blood vessels narrow
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Solution containing water, urea and other waste substances
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Toxic substance. Kidneys filter it out of blood and produce urine
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Selective reabsorbtion
Kidneys putting back useful substances into the blood. All glucose any salts needed and some water
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normal blood water levels
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low water concentration
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high water concentration
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Produces urea
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Tube in which urine passes from kidney to bladder
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Renal artery
Brings blood containing urea and other substances in solution to the kidney
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Renal vein
Carries blood away from kidneys once urea and other substances have been removed
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Stores urine
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Tube through which urine passes to the outside of your body
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Tough outer membraine that maintains kidney shape and provides protection
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outer region of the kidney
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inner middle part of the kidney
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Occurs in bowmans capsule, waste is forced oout from the blood under pressure, via a knot of capillaries called the glomerulus
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Selective reabsorbtion
Occurs in the first coiled part of the tubule
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Salt and water regulation
Occurs in the loop of henle, the second coiled region and collecting duct. Under the influence of ADH
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Water intoxication
Drinking an excess of water up until the point where it becomes harful to the body
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Thirst response
A reduction in water potential of your blood or increase of salt concentration loads to a thirst response
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Where your body doesn't have enough water
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Hypertonic (sports drink)
High levels of glucose and salts
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Hypotonic (sports drink)
Low levels of glucose and salts
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Isotonic (sports drink)
Ion concentrations equal to those in blood plasma
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Card 2


Brain and spinal cord


Central Nervous System

Card 3


Contain receptor cells that respond to light/sound


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Card 4


Carry electrical impulses from receptor cells to CNS


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Card 5


Only found within CNS. Carry nerve impulses from sensory neurones to motor neurones


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