Topic B1- Cell Biology

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What are the 2 types of organisms?
Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
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What are all living things made of?
All living things are made of cells
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What are Eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells.
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What are Prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler e.g. Bacteria
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What are Eukaryotes made up of?
Eukaryotes are organisms that are made up of eukaryotic cells
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What is a prokaryote?
A prokaryote is a prokaryotic cell, and is a single-celled organism
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Give a named example of a Eukaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cells include all animal and plant cells.
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Give a named example of a Prokaryotic cell?
Prokaryotic cell includes Bacteria
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What are the different parts of a cell called?
The different parts of a cell are called subcellular structures
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What 5 subcellular structures do most animal cells have?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell membrane, Mitochondria and Ribosomes.
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What is the function of the Nucleus?
The nucleus contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell.
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What does the Nucleus contain?
Genetic material
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What is the function of a Cytoplasm?
Where most of the chemical reactions take place.
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What does the Cytoplasm contain?
Cytoplasms contain enzymes that control these chemical reactions.
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What is the function of the cell membrane?
Cell membrane holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.
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What is the function of Mitochondria?
Where most of the reactions for aerobic respiration take place.
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What does respiration transfer?
Respiration transfers energy that the cell needs to work.
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What is the function of Ribosomes?
Where proteins are made in the cell
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What are the subcellular structures that a plant cell contains but an animal cell does not?
A cell wall, Permanent vacuole and Chloroplasts.
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What is the shape of the Cell wall like?
The Cell wall is rigid.
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What is the Cell wall made of?
The Cell wall is made of Cellulose.
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What is the function of the Cell wall?
The Cell wall supports the cell and strengthens it.
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What does the Permanent Vacuole contain?
The Permanent Vacuole contains Cell sap.
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What is Cell Sap?
Cell Sap is a weak solution of sugar and salts.
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What is the function of Chloroplasts?
Chloroplasts is where photosynthesis occurs, which makes food for the plant.
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What do Chloroplasts contain?
Chloroplasts contain a green substance called Chlorophyll
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What does Chlorophyll absorb and why do they absorb it?
Chlorophyll absorbs light needed for Photosynthesis.
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Which is the smallest cell: Animal, Bacteria or Plant?
Bacteria is the smallest cell.
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What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are Prokaryotes
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What are the 5 subcellular structures that a bacteria cell has?
Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cytoplasm, Plasmid and single circular strand of DNA.
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What do Bacterial cells have instead of a Nucleus?
Bacterial cells don't have a "true" nucleus- instead they have a single circular strand of DNA that floats freely in the Cytoplasm.
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What are Plasmids?
Plasmids are one or more small rings of DNA
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What do Bacteria not contain?
Bacteria don't have Chloroplasts or Mitochondria.
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Give 2 differences in structure between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells don't have Mitochondria but Eukaryotic cells do. Prokaryotic cells don't have a true Nucleus but Eukaryotic cells do.Prokaryotic cells have circular DNA but Eukaryotic cells don't
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A Eukaryotic cell measures 10 um long. How many times larger is it than the cell that is 1 um long?
10 times larger/ 1 order of magnitude larger
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The head of a pin is approximately 1 mm in diameter. How many Prokaryotic cells would fit lengthways across it?
1mm X 1000= 1000 um 1000 um / 1 um= 1000 cells
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What are cells studied using?
Cells are studied using Microscopes
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What do microscopes let us see?
Microscopes let us see things that we can't see with the naked eye.
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What do light microscopes use?
Light microscopes use light and lenses to from an image of a specimen to magnify it.
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What do light microscopes allows us to see?
Light microscopes let us see individual cells and large subcellular structures like Nuclei.
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What do Electron microscopes use?
Electron microscopes use electrons instead of light to form an image.
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Which has a higher magnification, a light microscope or an electron microscope?
Electron microscope has a much higher magnification than light microscopes.
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What is resolution?
Resolution is the ability to distinguish between 2 points, so a higher resolution gives a sharper image.
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Which has a higher resolution, a light microscope or an electron microscope?
Electron microscopes have a higher resolution than light microscopes.
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What do electron microscopes allow us to see?
Electron microscopes let us see much smaller things in detail, like internal structure of Mitochondia and Chloroplasts. Even Ribosomes and Plasmids.
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What is the formula for the magnification of an image?
Magnification= image size/ real size
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What are the steps to answering a question on Image size, Real size or Magnification?
1.Rearrange the formula. 2.Fill in the values you know. 3.Remember the units in your answer. 4.Convert the units.
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A specimen is 50 um wide. Calculate the width of the image of the specimen under a magnification of X100. Give your answer in mm.
Image size= Magnification X Real size. IS= 100 X 50 =5000 um 5000/1000 = 5 mm
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Do the units for that equation have to be the same?
Yes the units have to be the same or else the answer will be incorrect.
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Do you ever use standard form with microscopy?
Yes because microscopes can see such tiny objects, so sometimes it's useful to write numbers in standard form.
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A mitochondrion is approx. 0.0025 mm long. Write this figure in standard form.
2.5 X 10 to the power of -3
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What is a slide?
A slide is a ***** of clear glass or plastic onto which the specimen is mounted
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What is the first 2 steps of the method for preparing a slide to view onion cells?
Add a drop of water to the middle of a clean slide. Cut up an onion and separate it out into layers. Use tweezers to peel off some epidermal tissue form the bottom of 1 of the layers.
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What is the 3rd and 4th steps of the method to preparing a slide?
Using tweezers, place the epidermal tissue into the water on the slide. Add a drop of iodine solution. Iodine solution is a stain.
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What is the 5th step of the method for preparing a slide?
Place a cover slop on top. Stand the cover slip upright on the slide, next to the water droplet. Carefully tilt and lower it so it covers the specimen. Try not to get any air bubbles under there- they'll obstruct your view of the specimen.
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What are Stains used for?
Statins are used to highlight objects in a cell by adding colour to them.
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What is the method for looking at your prepared slide through a light microscope?
Clip slide you've prepared onto the stage. Select the lowest-powered objective lens. Use the coarse adjustment knob to move stage up. look down the eyepiece. Adjust the focus with fine adjustment knob, until clear image. Greater mag= higher O lens.
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What are the key things you need to remember when drawing your observations?
Draw using a pencil with sharp point. Take up half of space available. Draw w/ clear, unbroken lines. Don't colour or shade. Subcellular structures drawn in proportion. Include a title- magnif & what observing. Label features straight uncrossed lines
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Why might you add stain to the sample on a microscope slide?
To highlight objects within the sample by adding colour to them
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Describe the purpose of the adjustment knobs.
They bring the sample into focus by moving the stage up and down.
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How do cells become specialised?
Cells differentiate to become Specialised
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What is differentiation?
Differentiation is the process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
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As cells change what do they develop?
As cells change, they develop different subcellular structures and turn into different types of cells
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When cells develop what does this allow them to carry out?
This allows them to carry out specific functions.
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When does most differentiation occur?
Most differentiation occurs as an organism develops.
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In animal cells when is their ability to differentiate lost?
In most animal cells, the ability to differentiate is then lost at an early stage, after they become specialised.
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In plant cells when is their ability to differentiate lost?
However, lots of plant cells don't ever lose their ability.
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What are cells that differentiate in mature animals mainly used for?
The cells that differentiate in mature animals are mainly used for repairing and replacing cells, such as skin or blood cells.
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What are undifferentiated cells called?
Undifferentiated cells are called stem cells.
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What are the six main examples of specialised cells?
The 6 main examples of Specialised cells are: Sperm cells, Nerve cells, Muscle cells, Root hair cells, Phloem cells and Xylem cells.
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What are Sperm cells specialised for?
Sperm cells are specialised for Reproduction
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What is the function of Sperm cells?
The function of a sperm is basically to get the male DNA to the female DNA
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What are the characteristics of Sperm cells?
It has a long tail, streamlined head, lots of mitochondria and carries enzymes.
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Why do Sperm cells have lots of mitochondria?
Sperm cells have lots of mitochondria in the cell to provide the energy needed.
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What do Sperm cells carry in their heads?
Sperm cells carry enzymes in its head.
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Why do Sperm cells carry enzymes in their heads?
Sperm cells carry enzymes in their heads to digest through the egg cell membrane.
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What are Nerve cells specialised for?
Nerve cells are specialised for Rapid Signalling.
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What is the function of Nerve cells?
The function of nerve cells is to carry electrical signals from one part of the body to another.
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What are the characteristics of Nerve cells?
These nerve cells are long and have branced connections
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Why are Nerve cells long?
Nerve cells are long so that they can cover more distance.
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Why do Nerve cells have branched connections?
Nerve cells have branched connections at their ends to connect to other nerve cells and form a network throughout the body.
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What are Muscle cells specialised for?
Muscle cells are specialised for Contraction.
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What is the function of Muscle cells?
The function of a Muscle cell is to contract quickly.
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What are the characteristics of Muscle cells?
Muscle cells are long and contain lots of mitochondria.
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Why are Muscle cells long?
Muscle cells are long so that they have space to contract.
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Why do Muscle cells contain lots of mitochondria?
Muscle cells contain lots of mitochondria to generate the energy needed for contraction.
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What are Root hair cells specialised for?
Root hair cells are specialised for absorbing water and minerals.
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Where are Root hair cells located?
Root hair cells are cells on the surface of plant roots.
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When the Root hair cells grow into long “hairs” what do they stick out into?
When the Root hair cells grow into long "hairs" they stick out into the soil.
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When long “hairs stick out into the soil what does this give the plant?
When the Root hair cells grow into long "hairs" they stick into the soil. This gives the plant a big surface area.
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Why do the Root hair cells stick out into the soil?
This gives the plant a big surface area for absorbing water and mineral ions from the soil.
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What are Phloem and Xylem cells specialised for?
Phloem and Xylem cells are specialised for transporting substances.
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What do Phloem and Xylem cells form?
Phloem and Xylem cells form Phloem and Xylem tubes.
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What do the Phloem and Xylem tubes transport around the plant?
Phloem and Xylem cells form Phloem and Xylem tubes, which transport substances such as food and water around plants.
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What are the characteristics of the cells, to form the tubes?
The cells are long and joined end to end.
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What is in the centre of Xylem cells?
Xylem cells are hollow in the centre.
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Do Phloem cells have very few or lots of subcellular structures?
Phloem cells have very few subcellular structures.
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Why do Phloem cells have very few subcellular structures?
Phloem cells have very few subcellular structures, so that stuff can flow through them.
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Plants transport food substances from the leaves to growing parts of the plant through phloem tubes. Give one feature of a phloem cell that makes it specialised for its function.
They have few subcellular structures, they're joined end to end and they're long.
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Describe how a Root hair cell is specialised for its function.
The cell has a hair-like shape, which gives it a large surface area, to absorb water and minerals from the soil.
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As an organism develops, some of its cells develop different structures and change into different types of cells. This allows the cells to carry out specific functions. What is this process called? Mitosis, Adaptation, Differentiation, Specialisation
Differentiation
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Explain how the structure of a sperm cell helps it to achieve its function
A sperm cell has a tail to enable it to swim to the egg. It has lots of mitochondria to give it energy. It has a streamlined head to aid swimming. The head contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the egg.
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Card 3

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What are Eukaryotic cells?

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Card 4

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What are Prokaryotic cells?

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Card 5

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What are Eukaryotes made up of?

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