Topic 7 Product Manufacture

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List the four main manufacturing types
One-off, batch, continuous and mass
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What is a scale of production (definition)?
Refers to the number of products made at one time
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What is one-off production?
Designing and making a single product
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Give examples of items made in one-off production
Chair, wedding cake, suit, jewellery
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Why might a client want something from one-off production?
Want something special, need a particular size or for particular properties/ characteristics
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Why is one-off production expensive?
Slow; all the designing, transport, making are built into the cost of that one product
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What are the workers and tools like for one-off production?
Highly skilled workers that take on a broad range of tasks with generalised tools and equipment
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What is batch production?
When a larger number of tools are made at the same time
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True/false: Batch produced products still show some variation
False - they are identical
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With batch production, once a selection of products have been made, can you use the same equipment for other products?
Yes
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Give examples of products that are batch produced
Magasines, electricals, books and chairs
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What are the workers like in batch production?
They do not have such a broad range of skills because there are labour divisions so different people do different tasks
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What is the equipment like in batch production?
Specialised for a particular task with manufacturing aids like jigs and formers used as well
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Why might you use jigs and formers in batch production?
So each part can be repeated easily so they stay identical
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What are the workers like in mass production?
Specialise in a small range of tasks
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What is mass production?
Manufacturing in high volume
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Why is the cost of the plant with mass production high?
To ensure that products are made very efficiently
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Give an example of a product manufactured by mass production
Cars
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Who first used mass production? For what?
Henry Ford in 1908 for the Model T Ford
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What is continuous production?
Highly automated production that runs continuously
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Are there many workers involved in continuous production?
No
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What is the workforce like in mass production? Why?
Less skilled due to high levels of automation
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What could you say about the plant itself with continuous production?
It costed a lot and is designed to produce a limited range of products
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What is just-in-time production?
Production organised so the supply of materials is simultaneous with the need
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When is JIT production typically used?
For products where there are a lot of different options available
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How does JIT production work?
Working closely with the suppliers, each part of the product should arrive on the production line just in time for its assembly. The company making a certain part knows how many to make and when while the factory organises its delivery (logistics)
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What is good about using ICT in JIT production?
If a customer orders a particular product, that information can be quickly shared among the suppliers
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What is the advantage of using JIT production?
Less money tied up in the storage of parts
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What is the disadvantage of using JIT production?
Late deliveries of goods stops the production line
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Give examples of products made by JIT production
Car engines, car tyres, car steering wheels, buttons, bread, milk and drills
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What does EDI stand for?
Electronic data interchange
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What is EDI?
The transfer of structured data from one computer system to another without the need for human intervention
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Give an example of EDI
ICT is used to transfer data files between trading partners like the retailers and manufacturers
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What is the advantage of using EDI?
Speeds up the time given to initiate and agree customer orders so shortens the supply chain. Everything happens quicker
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How does EDI work?
Details of how many parts and which parts are needed when are sent electronically by EDI to the specific factories. The supply factory will automatically update its own computer system with the information sent directly
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What do some tills contain in the textiles industry?
EPOS (Electronic point of sales)
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What do EPOS tills do?
Gather information about the amount of garments sold and what stock is needed the next day. Delivery instructions are sent directly to suppliers and lorries begin delivery
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What is stock control?
Managing the amount of stock held by monitoring, ordering and outflow
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What will a point of sales till monitor?
Which styles, sizes of product have been sold. Which ones might go out of stock so it also sends EDI to request more
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What could happen if a company does not have the necessary stock to meet orders?
Loses sales and a damaged reputation
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Give examples of what stock can mean in different industries
Raw materials and components; Work in progress of part finished goods; Finished goods ready to dispatch to customers; Consumables and materials used by service businesses
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What are the risks of holding stock?
Obselescence so a waste; perish or deteriorate; risk of damage by fire, floods or theft; bank interest (if stock is financed by a loan); Storage costs for rent of warehouse
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What is bad about holding too much stock?
Expensive
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What does PDM stand for?
Product data management
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What is product data management?
A form of computer software used globally in business process automation
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Does PDM work locally or globally?
Both
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Can every stage of development access PDM?
Yes
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Give examples of things sent by PDM
Cost of a material increasing or decreasing; the weight of a material changing
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What are the advantages of PDM?
Many different aspects and key business processes like enhancement requests and engineering change management may be easily managed, automated and revised from a central point; an increase in productivity due to secure collaboration
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a scale of production (definition)?

Back

Refers to the number of products made at one time

Card 3

Front

What is one-off production?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give examples of items made in one-off production

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why might a client want something from one-off production?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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