Topic 5 The role of education in society

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  • Created by: zobia 08
  • Created on: 02-05-18 19:17
What is functionalism based on?
Based on the view that society is a system of interdependent parts held together by a shared culture or value consensus.
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Emile Durkheim (1903)
Identified two main functions of education : creating social solidarity and teaching specialist skills.
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What does Durkheim argue?
Argues that society needs a sense of solidarity that is its individual members must feel themselves to be part of a single 'body' or community
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What does the education system help to create?
Helps to create social solidarity by transmitting society's culture.
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Talcott Parsons (1961)
Sees the school as the 'focal socialising agency' in modern society acting as a bridge between the family and wider society.
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What do functionalists argue?
They argue that schools also perform the function of selecting and allocating pupils to their future work roles.
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Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore (1945)
See education as a device for selection and role allocation. They focus on the relationship between education and social inequality.
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What do Davis and Moore argue?
They argue that inequality is necessary to ensure that the most important roles in society are filled by the most talented people.
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Peter Blau and Otis Duncan (1978)
Argue that a modern economy depends for its prosperity on using its 'human capital'.
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Melvin Tumin (1953)
Critices Davis and Moore for putting forward a circular argument.
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Dennis Wrong (1961)
Argues that functionalists have an 'over-socialised view' of people as mere puppets of society.
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What do Neoliberals and the New Right argue?
They argue that the state education system fails to prepare young people adequately for work.
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What is Neoliberalism?
It is an economic doctrine that has has a major influence on education policy.
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What do Neoliberals argue?
They argue that the state should not provide services such as education, health and welfare.
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What idea is the Neoliberalism based on?
It is based on the idea that the state must not dictate to individuals how to dispose of their won property, and should not try to regulate a free-market economy.
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What do Neoliberals argue?
They argue that the value of education lies in how well it enables the country to compete in the global marketplace.
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What is the New Right?
The New Right is a conservative political view that incorporates neoliberal economic ideas.
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What do the New Right argue?
They argue that the state education systems take a 'one size fits all' approach, imposing uniformity and disregarding local needs.
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John Chubb and Terry Moe (1990)
Argue that state-run education in the United States has failed because, it has not created equal opportunity's, it is inefficient and private schools deliver high quality education.
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What do the New Right believe about education?
That education should affirm the national identity.
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Gewirtz (1995) and Ball (1994)
Argue that competition between schools benefits the middle class, who can use their cultural and economic capital to gain access to more desirable schools.
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What do Marxists argue about education?
That education does not impose a shared national culture, as the New Right claim, but imposes the culture of a dominant minority ruling class and devalues the culture of the working class and ethnic minorities.
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Karl Marx (1818-83)
Described capitalism as a two class system. The capitalist class and the working class.
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Louis Althusser (1971)
According to Louis Althusser (1971) the state consists of two elements or 'apparatuses' both of which serve to keep the bourgeoisie in power.
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What are the two elements that serve to keep the bourgeoisie in power?
The Repressive state apparatuses (RSAs) and The Ideological state apparatuses (ISAs)
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What is the Repressive State apparatuses?
Maintains the rule of bourgeoisie by force or the threat of it. The RSAs include the police, courts and army. When necessary, they use physical coercion (force) to repress the working class.
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What is the Ideological state apparatus?
Maintain the rule of the bourgeoisie by controlling people's ideas, values and beliefs. The ISAs include religion, the media and the education system.
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What do Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis (1976) argue?
Argue that capitalism requires a workforce with the kind of attitudes, behavior and personality-type suited to their role as alienated and exploited workers willing to accept hard work, low pay and orders from above.
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What does Phill Cohen (1984) argue?
Argues that youth training schemes serve capitalism by teaching young workers not genuine job skills but rather the attitudes and values needed in a subordinate labour force.
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What does meritocracy mean?
Means that everyone has an equal opportunity to achieve, that rewards are based on ability and effort and that those who gain the highest rewards deserve them because they are the most able and hardworking.
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Paul Will's (1977) study
Shows that working class pupils can resist such attempts to indoctrinate them.
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Raymond Morrow and Carlos Torres (1998)
Criticise Marxists for taking a 'class first' approach that sees class as the key inequality and ignores all other kinds.
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What do Raymond Morrow and Carlos Torres argue?
They argue that society is now more diverse. They see non-class inequalities such as ethnicity, gender and sexuality as equally important.
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What do Madeline MacDonald (1980) argue?
Argues Bowles and Gintis ignore the fact that schools reproduce not only capitalism but patriarchy too.
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Paul Connolly (1998)
Explores how education reproduces both ethnic and gender inequalities.
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Card 2

Front

Emile Durkheim (1903)

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Identified two main functions of education : creating social solidarity and teaching specialist skills.

Card 3

Front

What does Durkheim argue?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the education system help to create?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Talcott Parsons (1961)

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