Topic 5 - Survival and response

Stimulus
change which can be detected and which may invoke response
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receptors
cell that is sensitive to a stimulus for example light or temperature
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coordinator
brain and spinal coed receives impulses and forwards them to the appropriate organs
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Effector
an organ or cell that carries out a response to a nerve impulse
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taxis
movement of an animal in response to a directional stimuli
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Kinesis
change in direction as a response to a directional stimulus
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Reflect escape response
automatic response to remove and animal from danger
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positive phototaxis
move towards light
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negative phototaxis
move away from light
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reflex action
involuntary response to a stimulus
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sensory nuuron
to transmit changes in frequencies of impulse into the CNS
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relay neuron
a nerve cell that acts as the coordinator between sensory neurons and motor neurons and causes nerve impulses in the moor neuron
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motor neuron
nerve cell that carries information from the CNS to a muscle or a gland
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simple reflexes
an automatic to a stimulus. It does not involve any thought, but is an involuntary action
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positive phototropism
growth response towards the direction of the stimulus of light
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negative phototropism
growth response away from the direction of the stimulus of light
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Negative gravitropism
growth response away from the direction of the force of gravity
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positive gravitropism
growth response towards the direction of the force of gravity
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Indoleacetic acid (IAA)
Plant hormone - function: control plant growth
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Phototropoin
photoreceptor protein that mediates phototropism responses in higher plants
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Amyloplast
colourless organelle in plants, similar tin structure to a chloroplast stores starch
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Sensory receptor
a sensoy nerve ending that responds to a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism
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energy transducers
convert the enrgy of a stimulus into a frequency of impulses or action potential.
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Mechanoreceptor
a sensory receptor that responds to a mechanical pressure or distortion
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Stretch mediator sodium channel
Sodium channel whose permeability to sodium changes when they change shape.
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Generator potential
the charge built up when Na+ ions flood into a receptor cell
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Threshold level
minimum level to bring about a response
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Rods
cells in the retina used for vision in dim light
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Cones
cells in the retina of the eye, responsible for colour vision
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Rhodopsin
Photosensitive chromoprotein in the retinal rods that is bleached by light = stimulation of retinal sensory endings
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Iodopsin
light sensitive pigment found in cone cells
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Atrivoventricular node (AVN)
group of lsow - conducting fibres between the atria and ventricles of the heart
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Aortic body
one of several small clusters of chemoreceptors , baroreceptors and supporting cells located along the aortic arch
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Acetylcholine
chemical that acts as transmitter substance in many synapses
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Antagonistic
working in opposition to each other the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres when SAN reduces heart rate
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Acuity
ability to use the eyes to make out detail - clarity of vision
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Bleaching
making whiter or lighter in colour by exposure to sunlight or a chemical agents remove the colour form
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Baroreceptor
sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals that sense the blood pressure and relay the information to the brain - so that a proper blood pressure can be maintained
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Carotid body
a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork of the carotid artery - runs along both sides of the throat
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Carotid sinus
a dilation of the proximal portion of the internal carotid or distal portion of the common carotid artery, containing in its wall pressoreceptors that are stimulated by changes in blood pressure.
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cardioacceleratory centre
the part of the brain that sends impulses to speed up heartbeat
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cardioinhibitory centre
the part of the brain that sends impulses to slow down heartbeat
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cardiovascular centre
the part of the brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats
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Chemoreceptors
receptor that is sensitive to different kind if molecules
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Convergence
coordinated movement of the two eyes so that the image of a single point is formed on corresponding retinal areas
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Dark adaptation
changes in the iris and retina of the eye that allow better vision in dim light
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Lamellae
thin layers of bone or tissue
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Retinal
concerned with the retina of the eye
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Opsin
substance produced by the breakdown of the pigment rhodopsin in the rod cells of they eye
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Bipolar cells
cells in the retina of the eye connects a rod cell and cone cell with a ganglion cell
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Fovea
area of the retina with the most acute vision, consists almost entirely on cones
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Sensitivity
the strength of a specific stimulus required for the receptor to detect it
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Summation
the addictive effect of several electrical impulses on a neuromuscular junction
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Sympathetic nervous system
Of or relating to the part of the autonomic nervous system consisting of nerves that arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and the functioning in opposition to the parasympathetic system as in stimulating heartbeat
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Parasympathetic nervous system
Relating to the part of the autonomic nervous system which balances the action of the sympathetic nerves.
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Bundle of His
Tthe bundle of cardiac muscle fibres that passes from the atrioventricular node to the interventricular septum and then the ventricles
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Purkinji Fibres
Any of the specialised cardiac muscle fibres - part of the impulse conducting network of the heart that repidly transmit impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.
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Medulla oblongata
A cone -shaped neuronal mass in the brain responsible for multiple autonomic function.
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Parasympathetic neurons
part of the parasympathetic nervous system - the cell bodies lie in the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord
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Noradrenaline
Trasnmitter substnace in some synapses - has the same effect on the body as adrenaline
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

cell that is sensitive to a stimulus for example light or temperature

Back

receptors

Card 3

Front

brain and spinal coed receives impulses and forwards them to the appropriate organs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

an organ or cell that carries out a response to a nerve impulse

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

movement of an animal in response to a directional stimuli

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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