Topic 5 - Evidence for Evolution

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What is peer reviewing?
where scientists review a paper looking at whether he had included proper controls, statistics, considered work of other scientists and his conclusions validity
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What would the scientists remain?
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freedom to be critical without causing offense
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What is the first piece of evidence to support evolution?
Molecular phenology
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What is molecular phenology?
test from DNA or the molecules that it codes for ie: mRNA and proteins (proteonoics)
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What is DNA hybridisation?
DNA getting gently heated, it seperates into its component strands as the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs break
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What DNA makes hybrid DNA?
Chimpanee and human DNA,
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What is different about them?
They have different base sequences so they will not all pair up
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What will split up at lower temperatures?
Hybrid DNA
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What does this tell about evolution?
The more similar the base sequences of the two species the better they will stick together
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What does this show?
How closely related they are through evolution
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What is DNA profiling?
Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences
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what does this produce?
a series of different sized DNA fragments, which can be visualised as a series of bands or peaks on a DNA profile
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What happens if mutations have occured in some of these DNA sequences?
the enzymes will not cut the DNA
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What does the difference in fragment length produce?
information about the genetic difference between individuals and species
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What is DNa and protein sequencing?
By comparing the sequence of bases in DNA or the amino acid sequence in proteins or different species it is possible to determin how closely related organisms are in evolutionary terms
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What if they have few differences in DNA?
they evolved from a common ancestor
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What is the first stage of natural selection?
There is variation in a species
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What happens next?
Not all organisms born will survive, natural selection is the idea that the best adapted individuals will be the ones most likely to survive and reproduce
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What do the animals that survive pass on?
their alleles
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What happens over time?
frequency of the fitter allele increases within the population
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What happens in speciation?
two pockets of the same species become isolated, they present different selective pressures and over many generations form two new species that cant breed to form fertile offspring
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