Topic 5 Design in the Human Context

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What are the three groups human factors fall into?
Physiological, psychological and sociological
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What does it mean by physiological factor?
Relating to the body or movement and people's physical capabilities
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Give examples of what is looked out when we say physiological factors
Size, strength, hand-eye coordination and stamina
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What are ergonomics?
The study of relationships between people, products and the environment
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Give an example of where ergonomics has been used
Cars
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What does ergonomics try to acheive?
Working efficiently, safely and comfortably
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What does it mean by psychological factors?
Relating to the mind and behaviour
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How do psychological factors make a product easier to use?
Helps the user to understand and react to sensory information of this sort
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Give an example of a visual psychological factor
Colour
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What does the colour white suggest? So what is it used for?
Cleanliness so it is used in kitchens and bathrooms
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What else can colour allow the consumer to do?
Understand the product like safety features
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Why does having sounds built into products like watches help?
Reassurance it is working
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Give examples of products that give audible feedback like instructions or warnings
Car indicators, reversing trucks and whistling kettles
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What do we mean by sociological factors?
Human problems in relation to environmental factors
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What sort of products need to think about sociological factors?
Large scale
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Give examples of sociological issues
Access (climbing steps and opening doors) and personal space
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What impact does personal space have on people?
It affects stress levels
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What is exclusivity?
Excluding people by failing to meet their needs
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How do product designers ensure their products are aimed at specific groups?
Put people into different categories called stereotypes
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Give a type of product that needs to take account of people's differences
Food
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Give examples of people with different food needs
Elderly, vegetarians, people with allergies, pregnant women, nursing women, athletes and children
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What is inclusivity?
Meeting everyone's needs
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Is it a realistic idea to include people in all sections of society in a product?
No
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Why do products need to be adjustable?
People vary in size
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Give examples that are adjustable and therefore inclusive
Office chairs, bicycles and car seats
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What are anthropometrics?
The study of human measurements and people's size
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What is the 5th and 95th percentile?
The 'normal' range that product designers target
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What percentile are doorways designed for?
95th
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Ergonomics relate to what type of factor?
Physiological
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Give an example of where ergonomics are used in houses
Working triangles in kitchens
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Why have the government set up legislation for products?
To protect the consumer and ensure they are safe to use
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What is the Trades Description Act about?
It is illegal to make false claims about a product
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What is the Consumer Protection Act about?
To prevent the sale of products that may be harmful or defective
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What is the Sales of Goods Act about?
Goods should be fit for the purpose intended
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What is the Consumer Safety Act about?
The government can ban the sale of dangerous products
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What is the Weights and Measures Act about?
It is illegal to sell products that are underweight or to sell to a short measure
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What are the Food Safety Act and Food Safety Regulations about?
Guidance is given on food hygiene management
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What are the Food Labelling Regulations about?
Certain information is required to be shown on most food labels
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What does BSI stand for?
British Standards Institution
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What does the BSI Kitemark show?
They are buying a consistently reliable product in terms of safety and quality. It has been tested against national standards and ensures safety and quality of their products and services
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What does CE stand for?
Conformite Europeene
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What does the CE European standards symbol show?
The product conforms with the minimum european standards
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What type of product usually has a CE marking symbol on its product?
Toys
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What are the requirements with product names?
Must not be misleading. If something is 'flavoured' it should taste like it but if it says it contains a particular ingredient, it must
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What are the requirements with stating the ingredients?
Should list the ingredients in decreasing order of weight and should include additives and preservatives
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What are the requirements with nutritional information?
This must be included so consumers can compare products
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What should consumers know about 'use by' dates?
After that date the product should be thrown away
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What should consumers know about 'best by' dates?
After that date, the food begins to deteriorate but will not be harmful
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What are the requirements with storage instructions?
Must be included, especially if it will be stored after opening
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What is the requirement with contact addresses?
The name and address of manufacturer, retailer or distributor must be included so the consumer can contact them if necessary
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What is quality assurance?
Ways of managing all functions that could affect quality. Ensuring the best quality product before it has been made
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Give examples of ways of quality assurance
Staff training, materials, manufacturing processes and equipment must be checked and monitored
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What is quality control?
Checks during the manufacturing process against the manufacturing specification
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What sort of tests might take place to ensure quality control?
Accuracy of dimensions, weight, flammability, fit and use
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Give some examples of equipment used to ensure quality
Vernier caliper, measuring tape, scales and ammeter/voltmeter
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What is tolerance?
An acceptable range of difference from standard
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How are tolerances shown?
As positive and negative signs to show maximum and minimum measurements
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What sort of factors do tolerances apply to?
Size, weight and performance
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What is a key phrase that companies want to maintain with their consumers?
Brand loyalty
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Why might consumers go back to the same brand?
Previous experience, successful advertising, Which? comparisons
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What is good about Which? comparisons?
Grades products against specific criteria and against similar products so consumers can see which products are best suited to them or are the best value for money without testing it themselves
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does it mean by physiological factor?

Back

Relating to the body or movement and people's physical capabilities

Card 3

Front

Give examples of what is looked out when we say physiological factors

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are ergonomics?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give an example of where ergonomics has been used

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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